CALCULATE – (verb) means to work out an answer using the methods of arithmetic and mathematics. “Please calculate the answer to this problem. When he calculated what it would cost he changed his plan, because he did not have enough money.

CALCULATION is the noun of CALCULATE.” He did the calculation and got an answer of 100. According to my calculations if we drive through the night we will arrive at 8 am.

CALCULATOR – (noun) means anything that can be used to calculate an answer. Old fashioned calculators used to work mechanically, but modern calculators work electronically. See MECHANICAL & ELECTRONI The usual hand held calculator is able to add, subtract, multiply and divide, but there are many hand held calculators that can do advanced mathematical calculations.

CALCULUS – (noun) is the name given to a certain algebraic form of maths. It is also called infinitesimal calculus. See DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS & INTEGRAL CALCULUS.

CALENDAR – (noun) A calendar is a table of information which gives the days of the week with their dates and the months of the year.

CAN 1. As a verb can means to be able to. “He is clever so he can do that difficult sum. I can swim. “2. It also means a thing that you use to keep something in. “The oil can” – (noun)” has half a litre of oil in it. He ate a whole can of peaches.

CANNOT is the same as CAN NOT. It means not able to. See CAN.

CAPACITY – (noun) 1. Capacity means the amount of space inside.” The big room has the capacity to seat 50 people. The capacity of the jug is 2 litres. ” 2. Capacity also means an amount of ability. “ She is clever and has a great capacity” “for learning. The big power station has the capacity to produce enough electricity for two cities.

CAPITAL – (noun) 1. Capital means the money that one has that one can invest. See INVEST. One expects to make regular income from investing one’s capital. This income is called the return on one’s investment. One can invest money in a Bank or Building Society at a low rate of interest. See INTEREST. The return on one’s money is expected to be higher the greater the risk of the investment. For example if you lent someone some money to start a new business you would expect a higher rate of return than from a bank where your money is very safe. 2. Capital also means the city where the government of a country or province is located. See LOCATED. “Cape Town is the capital of the Cape Province. 3”. Large letters are called ‘capitals’ (noun) or ‘capital letters’ (adjective).” Please write your name in capitals on the front of each of your books. “The name of a place or a person is started with a capital letter. Mr” Jones; Durban. “See PROPER NOUN.

CAPITALISM – (noun) is a system of economics – (See ECONOMICS) based on private ownership – (instead of state ownership) of the means of production of a country and that such private owners of factories etc should be in competition with one another and allowed to sell the goods they make at the best price possible so as to make a profit. This is called a Free Market economy when the government does not interfere with taxes and fix prices for materials and labour.

CAPITALIST – (noun) A capitalist is someone who believes in capitalism. It is also someone who uses his money to run a business. Some capitalists are very rich people.

CARDINAL NUMBER – (noun) means a number that answers the question, How many? When you say I have 4 apples or he is 10 years old or I will walk 20 kilometres, 4, 10 & 20 are cardinal numbers because they answer the questions: How many apples do you have, how old is he and how far will you walk? See ORDINAL NUMBER.

CARRY 1. Carry – (verb) means to pick up and move from one place to another. “Please help me carry my books to the library. When he carried the heavy suitcase his arm got sore. When it looks like rain he carries an umbrella. The bus is carrying a lot of passengers. ” 2. In arithmetic it means to move a number from one column to the next. If you add up the units column and it comes to 12 you will carry 1 to the tens column. If the units column added up to 38 then you would carry 3 to the tens column. If you added up the tens column and it came to 12(ten’s) then you would carry 1 t o the hundreds column. If you don’t understand this get your teacher to show you. See CRUTCH. See diagram 40.

CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES – (noun) Cartesian co-ordinates is another name for rectangular co-ordinates. See diagram 18.

CASE – (noun) 1. Case means something that you can put something in like a box. “Cases are often made out of wood. He packed his furniture and things in three large cases to send them safely to Johannesburg. A suitcase is something you put clothes in.” 2. Case also means something that happens that way or just is that way. He is a case of laziness, he never does his homework. “There were many cases of illness during the cold wet winter.” 3. Case has a special meaning in grammar. See your Grammar book. 4. It also means a matter that has to be decided in a court of law.

“He won his case and was paid for the repairs to his car that was damaged in the accident.

CASH – (noun) usually means money in the form of coins and notes, not cheques. When you speak of CASH in book keeping you sometimes mean Rand notes and coins – (PETTY CASH BOOK), but you can also mean a mixture of cash and cheques – (CASH BOOK).


CASUAL 1. Casual – (adjective) means happening by chance.” He had a casual meeting with her in town. “2. It also means without plan or method. “ His casual answer did not in fact answer the question at all. ” 3. It also means not regular or lasting. “ He got a casual job at the hotel over Christmas and New Year.

CATCH – (verb) means to get hold of something so you have it.” You catch a ball in your hand. You catch a thief by running after him and getting hold of him. You catch a bus or train by getting on to it. You catch a fish with a hook and line or in a net.

CATEGORY – (noun) means a group of things that are similar, but fit into a larger group of things. For example people can be put into 4 categories. Men, women, boys & girls. The larger group here is people. Living things can be divided into two main categories: plants and animals. Here the larger group is living things.” The factory produces two main categories of goods: food is the one category and clothing is the other. “The word CLASS can also have the same meaning as category.

CAUGHT is the past of CATCH.

CAUSE – (noun) 1. A cause is the goal towards which someone or some organisation is working. “The cause of Education Alive is to produce a society which can study so that they are able to apply what they have learnt.” 2. A cause is that which produces the effect. “The cause of her problems at school is that she does not look up the meanings of the words she does not understand. The cause of the accident was the failure of his brakes to work. “3. Cause also means a reason for action. “ Her birthday is cause for a party. ” 4. Cause – (verb) means to get something to happen. “ By driving on the wrong side of the road you will cause an accident. He caused a lot of fun with all his clever jokes.

CEMENT – (noun) is a fine grey powder which sets hard after it is made wet. It is mixed with sand and water to stick bricks together to build a house. This mixture is called mortar. It is mixed with sand and stone to make concrete.

CENT – (noun) A cent is one hundredth of a Rand. The symbol for cents is A short way of writing 20 cents is 20

CENTIGRADE – (noun) is a unit of measuring how hot something is. There are 100 degrees of centigrade – (the abbreviation for degrees centigrade is &>0 &>C) between the temperature of melting ice – ( 0 &>0 &>C ) and the temperature of boiling water – (100 &>0 &>C). 

CENTIMETRE – (noun) A centimetre is one hundredth of a metre. A new pencil is about 15 centimetres long. The short way of writing centimetre is cm.

CENTRE – (noun) 1. Centre means the point at the middle of something. He hit the target right in the centre. See Diagram 16. The centre of a circle is the same distance from any point on its circumference. See CIRCUMFERENCE. 2. Centre also means a place where lots of people go. “Many people go to the shopping centre on Saturdays. 3. A Civic Centre is a building, where the people who run a town, work. The office of the Mayor is in the Civic Centre.

CENTROID (noun) See diagram 30.

CEREMONY – (noun) A ceremony is a set of actions that are done for something special. The actions that are done when two people get married is called a wedding ceremony. The set of actions done when a person is buried after he has died is called a funeral ceremony.

CERTAIN 1. – (verb) means to be sure, to have no doubt.” He was certain he got the answer right and could not believe it when the teacher marked it wrong. ” 2. – (noun) If you say I will be there tomorrow for certain it means that tomorrow you will go there and be there for sure, without a doubt. 3. If you tell someone to make certain about something you mean that you want him to do whatever is necessary to be sure he has got that thing right or the way it should be. “Make certain you get to work on time tomorrow.” 4. If you talk about a certain thing (or person) you are talking about something that you know exists (see EXIST), but do not know exact details about it. “A certain” (adjective) “person stole the keys and we are expecting the police to find out who it is. A certain person has come top of the class, but we will not know who it is until tomorrow”.

CERTAINTY is the noun from CERTAIN. If you have certainty about something then it means you have got it right without doubt or you can use it with confidence because you have no doubts. “He has certainty on playing the piano and he does not make mistakes even in front of a lot of people.

CHAIR PERSON – (noun) is the name of the person who is in charge of a meeting of people. It can be a man or a woman. It is he or she who announces the items of business to be discussed and it is his or her job to see that the meeting is done in an orderly way. “She is a good chair person because she keeps good order and gets the business of the meeting done without a waste of time”. CHAIRMAN is the masculine form; CHAIRLADY is the feminine form.

CHALK – (noun) is the white thing the teacher uses to write on the chalk board. A piece of chalk is about as thick as a finger and half as long as a pencil.

CHALKBOARD – (noun) A chalkboard is the board on which the teacher writes the lessons with chalk. It is also called a black board because it is usually black in colour.

CHAMPION – (noun) A champion is a person who beats everyone in a competition and comes first. “He is the South African heavyweight boxing champion because he has beaten all the other heavyweight boxers in S Africa.

CHANGE 1. Change – (verb) means to do something that makes a difference. “He changed his clothes. He changed the car wheel. The weather has changed and it is now raining. Change the Ten Rand note into coins. “The money you get when you do this is called small change. 2. When you buy something in a shop you usually give more money than it cost and the shopkeeper gives you the difference. This difference is called your change – (noun).” He paid R5 for a R4 book so he got R1 change.

CHAOS – (noun) means very great confusion and very great disorder. “After the big explosion there were no telephones, no electricity, no radio, no ambulances, no buses and many people were killed or injured. There was chaos.

CHARACTERISTIC – (noun) 1. Characteristic means a special quality that something or someone has that makes him different from others. “His characteristic is that he always makes friends very easily. The characteristic of a dog is that it barks. Those grapes have a characteristic “- (adjective)” sweet taste. ” 2. In logarithms, characteristic has a special meaning which you will learn when your teacher shows you how to use log tables.

CHART – (noun) 1. A chart is a map used by sailors that shows the coastline, dangerous rocks and shallow places in the sea. See MAP. 2. Chart also means a diagram used to help explain something. “The engineer used a chart to explain the various steps in the production of the new motorcar.

CHECK – (verb) has several meanings. 1. It means to hold back or prevent progress. “The tree that had fallen across the road checked their progress. The misunderstood word checked his understanding of what he was reading. “2. It also means to examine something to see if it is the way it should be.” The teacher will check his homework to see if it is correct. “3. – (noun) It also means the mark the teacher makes when you have something correct. This mark is also called a tick. See diagram 45.

CHEMICAL – (noun) A chemical is something that is made out of atoms. See ATOM. So all things are actually chemicals because all things are made of atoms. But the word chemical is usually used about things which react when added to other things and form something new. The new thing that is formed is also called a chemical. For example sulphuric acid is a chemical. When it is added to iron, iron sulphate is formed. Iron sulphate is also a chemical. When carbon burns it combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Carbon, oxygen and carbon dioxide are all called chemicals. See COMBINE.

CHEMIST – (noun) 1. A chemist is someone who works in a shop where you buy medicines. 2. It is also the name of a shop that has medicines.” He bought medicine for his cold at the chemist ““.” 3. A chemist is also the name of a person whose job is the manufacture – (making) of chemicals.

CHEQUE – (noun) A cheque is a piece of paper which when properly written out is worth money. It is pronounced ‘check’. A cheque must have the following things on it to be valid – (See VALID): The date, the account number, the name of the bank and the name of the branch, the person to whom the money will be paid or CASH, the amount to be paid – (this written in words and in figures) and the signature of the person whose bank account it is. It will also have the cheque number, the bank number and the account number on it, usually along the bottom of the cheque. See diagram 43. It is a crime – (see CRIME) to use a cheque to pay for something that costs more than the amount of money in the bank account. If you lose a cheque it is rather like losing money especially if the cheque is a cash cheque – (not made out to a particular person, but made out to CASH). If a cheque is crossed – (2 lines drawn across it) then it is safer if you lose it or have it stolen because it means that it must go through a bank account to be pa id and therefore the person who used your lost cheque can be traced. See TRACE. Usually the words ‘& Co’ are written in between the crossing lines. Alternatively the words ‘Not Negotiable’ or the words ‘Not Transferable’ can be written in between the crossing lines. When either of these sets of words is used it means that the money can only be paid into the bank account of the person or firm named on the cheque. See ENDORSE.

CHEQUE BOOK – (Pronounced ‘check’) A cheque book – (noun) is a book containing blank cheques. See CHEQUE and diagram 43. When you tear out a cheque to use it a stub – (see STUB) is left behind in the cheque book with the cheque number on it. When you w rite out a cheque – (before tearing it out) you should write the date, the name of the person to whom the cheque was made out and the amount. It is most useful to have these stubs as a permanent record of all the cheques you have made out.

CHOOSE – (verb) means to pick out one thing from a number of things. “Her mother told her to choose which doll she would like for her birthday. I choose blue as the colour I like best. “It usually means that you need to make a decision when you choose something. In the examples the girl must decide which doll she likes best and I had to decide which colour I like best.

CHORD – (noun) In music a chord means two or more notes together chosen so they sound good together. See diagram 16 for chord of a circle.

CHOSE is the past tense of CHOOSE. “Yesterday he chose not to go. “ “Today he chooses to go.

CHOSEN Past participle of CHOOSE.” What have you chosen? I have chosen the red dress. You can have the blue dress.

CIRCLE – (noun) 1. A circle is a curved line which has all points on it the same distance from its centre point. See Diagram 16. 2. To circle means to go around something. “The belt circles his waist. He circled the house to look for his dog.

CIRCULAR 1. Circular – (adjective) means round like a circle. “He made a circular mark on the ground.” “The dog searched in a circular pattern for his bone. “ 2. Circular – (noun) also means something written or printed that is sent to a large number of people to advertise something. “His business got much bigger after he started sending out 10,000 circulars each week to the people in his area.

CIRCUMCENTRE – (noun) See diagram 29.

CIRCUMFERENCE – (noun) has two meanings. It can mean the outside edge of something. Or it can mean the distance around the outside edge of something. “He ran around the circumference of the field 20 times to train for the race. The circumference of this field is 264 metres. ” See diagram 16 for circumference of a circle. See PI.

CIRCUMSCRIBE – (verb) Means to draw a figure around another figure so as to touch as many points as possible. See diagram 16A. 

CLASS – (noun) This means a group of children at school studying at the same level. See CATEGORY for other meanings.

CLASSIFY – (verb) means to arrange into classes or categories. “The school children were classified into two groups: those under ten and those over ten years old.

CLASSMATE Mate means a person who you work with, so classmate means another boy or girl who is in the same school class as you. “She was in a small class; she only had 20 other classmates.

CLASSROOM – (noun) A classroom is the room in which the teacher teaches the children their school work.

CLASSWORK – (noun) is the work you do in class with your teacher.

CLAUSE – (noun) 1. A clause is something that is written. In grammar it means part of a sentence that has a subject and a predicate. See SUBJECT & PREDICATE. The main clause can stand on its own; the subordinate clauses depend on the main clauses for a complete meaning. See SUBORDINATE. In the sentence “I will leave when the sun sets’ ”: “I will leave’ ” is the main clause and “when the sun sets’ ” is a subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses function as an adjective, an adverb or a noun. “when the sun sets’ ” is an adverbial clause. In the sentence “I do not know what you are talking about’ ‘I do not know’ ” is the main clause; “what you are talking about’ ” stands for a noun – (the thing that was being talked about) and is called a nominal clause. In the sentence “The car that was white had an accident’ ” the clause “that was white’ ” is an adjectival clause because it describes the car. See DESCRIBE. 2. Clause can also mean a number of complete sentences that together have a special meaning. When one h as a written agreement the various things that are agreed are written in out in clauses. Each clause states one of the things that is agreed.” The first clause of the agreement to sell the house stated the price; the second clause stated the date of transfer. ” See STATE, AGREEMENT, CONTRACT & TRANSFER.

CLEAR 1. Clear – (adjective) means not cloudy.” Because it was a clear day he could see a long way. ” 2. It also means easy to see through.” Most window panes are made of clear glass, but usually bathroom windows are made of glass that you cannot see through. ” 3. When you talk about clear ideas it means ideas that you understand and are not confused about. “ After showing the class on the chalkboard how to do the sum the teacher expected the children to have a clear idea on how to do the sum. “4. Clear – (verb) means to make clear or to become clear. “ The skies have cleared. ” “He has cleared up the mystery for us.

CLOCK FACE – (noun) is the name of the front of a clock where the hands of the clock are and on which are written the 12 hours of the day.” To tell the time you must be able to see the clock face.

CLOCKWISE – (adjective) means in the same direction that the hands of a clock move. You turn off a tap in a clockwise direction. See diagram 17.

CLOSE CORPORATION. – (noun) Abbreviation C A close corporation is a like a PROPRIETARY LIMITED COMPANY, but more suitable for a small business. See PROPRIETARY LIMITED COMPANY.

CLOSE 1.Close means near. “She sat close” – (adverb) “to her friend because she liked her.” “They are close” – (adjective) “friends.” 2. Close – (verb) also means to shut. “ Please close the door to stop the cold wind blowing in. “ Ask your teacher to tell you the difference because when you mean near the word close is pronounced one way and when you mean shut it is pronounced another way. See PRONOUNCE.

CLOSED 1. Closed is the past tense of the verb ‘to close’. “I did not hear what she said because the door was closed.” 2. In geometry closed means a figure that is closed. A closed figure has no starting point and no ending point. See diagram 17.

CLOSES – (verb) If you say school closes at the end of next week it means that it will be the end of term at the end of next week. – (I close; he, she & it closes; we, you &they close) See CLOSE.

CLUB – (noun) has several meanings. 1. It is a heavy stick of wood or bar of iron that one can use to hit someone else. “He found a wooden club so he could defend himself.” 2. It is the name for something that you use to hit a ball. “He can hit the ball far with his new golf club.” 3. Club also means a group of people who like to do things together. “He likes tennis so he joined the tennis club.” 4. It is also the name of the building where people go who belong to a club. “She likes to go to the dance club, but he likes to go to the football club”.

CLUE – (noun) means something that will lead you to find out an answer to something you do not know. “The teacher gave the children a clue when she said what she was asking for started with the letter P.

 COACH 1. Coach – (noun) is the name given to something in which passengers sit. It usually means a railway coach, but a large bus is also called a coach. “This coach can seat 50 passengers.” 2. Coach – (verb) also means to train someone how to do something. “He is coaching me at tennis and I am learning to play better. “ 3. Coach – (noun) also means the person who trains someone. “This team is winning because they have a very good coach.”

CO-EFFICIENT – (noun) In Algebra the unknown numbers are usually shown by x, y or z. These are called variables. The constant numbers are usually shown by a, b, c etc. In a term – (See TERM) consisting of the product of a constant and a variable the constant is called the co-efficient. For example in the expression axe + by = z, the co-efficient of x is a, the co-efficient of y is b, and the co-efficient of z is 1.

COIL – (noun) 1. A coil is the name of something that is wound round and round. See diagram 23 for a coil of wire. 2. Coil can also be used as a verb. “To stop the prisoner from getting away he coiled a rope round and round his body and legs.

COIN – (noun) is the name given to metal money. A 2 cent piece and a 50 cent piece are coins.

COINCIDE – (verb) 1. Coincide means being in the same position or occupying the same position in space. “The two points coincide so they must be on the same place on the paper”. 2. It also means at the same time. “As his birthday party and the final match coincide I will not be able to go to both.

COLLECT – (verb) 1. Collect means to bring together. “She collected wood to make a fire. He collected pictures of famous soccer players. ” 2. Collect in maths means grouping terms in between brackets. For example if you were asked to collect t he like – (here ‘like’ means the same) terms in this expression – (See EXPRESSION): 2a + a + 3b + 4c + 6a + 6b + 7c the answer would be – (a + 2a + 6a) + – (3b + 6b) + – (4c + 7c). If you further simplify this by addition you get 9a + 9b + 11

COLON – (noun) 1. Colon is the word used to name the symbol: A colon is a punctuation mark used just before a series of items. For example “the names of my friends are: Joe, Jim, Charles, Lucky & Aslam. “ “The tools you need are: a saw, a hammer, a screwdriver and a spanner. “ See PUNCTUATION. 2. Colon is also another name for the large intestine.

COLOUR – (noun) is the word used to describe red, yellow, blue, orange, white, purple, black, green and so on.” What colour dress will you wear tomorrow? I will wear a red dress she said”.

COLUMN and ROW – (nouns) in Mathematics usually refer to a lot of numbers written in an orderly form on a sheet of paper. This is called a TABLE. In the following table we have 5 columns and 4 rows of figures:


1. 100000 543210 213243 345468 675849

2. 387043 857403 235798 436598 875394

3. 357947 769342 194637 868797 546386

4. 977551 334763 720490 349872 521763

1136,9025>The number in column B row 2 is 857403. The number in column E row 3 is 546386. Other things besides numbers can be arranged in rows and columns. For example you can arrange some words, or some pictures of animals or anything you like in rows and columns. See ARRAY.

COMBINE – (verb) 1. Combine means to put together or act together.” When you combine oil and water they do not mix. The two football players combined so well together that 4 goals were scored. ” When two chemicals join together to form another chemical you say that they combine. See CHEMICAL. When hydrogen and oxygen combine they form water. 2. Combine means the same as add in aritmetic See ADD.

COME – (verb) has several meanings. 1. It means to arrive. “When will the bus come?” 2. It means to move towards. “Come to me.” 3 It means to happen. “The cold weather comes in winter.” 4. It means to be the answer or result. “What does this sum come to? My wish came true. ” 5. to come to rest means to stop. “ After the accident the bus came to rest just 10 centimetres from the shop window. ” 6. To come to a conclusion means to come to a decision after working things out in your mind.

COMMA – (noun) The symbol for comma is, See SYMBOL. A comma is a punctuation mark. See PUNCTUATION. In written language a comma indicates an interruption in the thought and structure of the sentence. For example: “He wanted to play, but his father told him to do his homework.” In the next sentence commas are used to separate the list of animals. “Lions, tigers, leopards, rhino, buffalo are all fierce animals.” In the following sentence commas are used again to separate the thought. “Joe, the great soccer player, was very popular.” In Mathematics the comma has two purposes. Firstly it is used instead of a decimal point. See DECIMAL POINT. Secondly it is used to split up long numbers into groups of 3 digits. See DIGIT. For example if this number, 120000000, is written 120,000,000 it is much easier to see that it is one hundred & twenty million.

COMMERCE – (noun) means buying and selling especially in big quantities. “South Africa has much commerce with other countries of Africa.

COMMERCIAL is the adjective of commerce. “He is very commercial; he only thinks of buying and selling and making money.

COMMITTEE – (noun) A committee is a group of people who have job to do something. For example if you form a sports club the club members usually appoint a committee to see that the club is properly run.” He was very interested in football and soon after he joined the club he was appointed to the committee.” See APPOINT.

COMMON – (adjective) means belonging equally to two or more things. “All the players had the common purpose of wanting to win. The two triangles have a common side. ” See diagram 10. There are also some special uses of the word COMMON in maths. See HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR, LOWEST COMMON DENOMINATOR, LOWEST COMMON MULTIPL E, COMMON DIFFERENCE, COMMON FRACTION, COMMON DIVISOR, COMMON TANGENT.


COMMON DIVISOR – (noun) This is another name for COMMON FACTOR.

COMMON FACTOR – (noun) See FACTOR. When two different numbers have the same factor this factor is called a common factor. For example 10 and 15 have 5 as a common factor – (10 = 5 x 2 and 15 = 5 x 3). See COMMON. See Appendix II.2 for common factors in algebra.

COMMON FRACTION – (noun) A common fraction is the name of the sort of fractions that you will be expected to know about. The following are common fractions; 2/3, 7/8, 99/100 and so on. 2.33/5.4, 1/3.4 are not common fractions. Both the numerator and the denominator are whole numbers in common fractions. See NUMERATOR, DENOMINATOR, COMMON & FRACTION.


COMMON SIDE – (noun) See diagram 10.

COMMON TANGENT – (noun) means that the same line is a tangent to more than one curve. See COMMON & TANGENT. See diagram 46.

COMMUNISM – (noun) is a system based on state ownership of the means of production and distribution and also state ownership of property. See CAPITALISM, ECONOMICS & SOCIALISM. Socialism and Communism are very similar except that Communism wishes to bring this about by revolution and Socialism by peaceful means. See REVOLUTION.

COMPANION – (noun) means a person who is with someone else for some purpose. “His dog is his constant companion. I chose John as my companion to go to see the football match. They are great friends. They are companions in work and play.

COMPANY – (noun) 1. Company means a group of people that have a common purpose. The purpose could be for doing business, for friendship, for going out together or anything else. “This company buys and sells motorcars. When you are in company “- (meaning a gathering of people, probably your family and friends) “you are expected to behave well. She kept him company at the football match. “2. You can also talk about a company of soldiers, which consists of two or more platoons of soldiers.

COMPARATIVE – (adjective) means in a way that is comparing. See COMPARE. “She looked at his work in a comparative way always comparing it with hers. Better is the comparative form of good. ” See MOST.

COMPARE – (verb) 1. Compare means to find out or point out how things or persons are similar or different. “When you compare James and John you see that James is more clever, but John is better at sport. He compared the two cars to see which was the better one. When you compare the twins you will see that they are the same in all respects except that one is s lightly taller than the other.” 2. Compare also has a special meaning in Grammar. See DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

COMPARISON – (noun) 1. Comparison means the act of comparing some things. “I did not agree with his comparison of the two girls. I think Jane is more beautiful. ” 2. Comparison also means similarity. “ There is no comparison in speed between a motorcar and an ox wagon. “See DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

COMPASS – (noun) 1. A compass is used for telling where North is. It has a small magnet in it which can swing freely. When the compass is held still the small magnet which is called the compass needle will swing until it points to magnetic North which is nearly the same direction as true North. You should ask your geography teacher to tell you more about this. See POINTS OF THE COMPASS. 2. A pair of compasses – (noun) is something that is used to draw a circle. A pair of compasses is sometimes called a compass for short. See diagram 39.

COMPETITION – (noun) means that more than one person is trying to get or win the same thing. There are many kinds of competitions as you will see from the following sentences. “The best team should win the football competition. In this competition you have to guess the right answer and post it in to the competition organiser. The two boys were in competition for the same girl. Competition is good for business because it keeps prices down. ” “ “ – (In this example all the businesses selling a particular thing are trying to get as many people as possible to buy from them only, so if their price is too high they will lose). See PARTICULAR & POSSIBLE.

COMPILE – (verb) means to collect and bring together information. “She compiled a list of all the friends she wanted to come to her birthday party. It is a good idea to compile a list before you go shopping. He compiled a scrap book with all his magazine cuttings.

COMPLEMENT – (See COMPLIMENT and make sure you understand the difference) 1. Complement – (noun) means the amount to complete or fill something. It is often used when you are talking about the number of men needed to run a ship. “The captain took on another two sailors and then the ship had its full complement.” 2. In maths it means the angle which when added to an angle makes a total of 90 degrees. For example “the complement of an angle of 30 degrees is 60 degrees.” See diagram 10.

COMPLEMENTARY is the adjective of COMPLEMENT. It means that which fills or completes or that which when added to the fist angle makes an angle of 90 degrees. “There were 30 people in the 40 seater bus so 10 was the complementary number of passengers.

COMPLETE 1. Complete – (adjective) means with everything that should be there. “A complete set of text books should include a dictionary.” 2. It also means with everything done that should be done.” When you are complete you can go home”. 3. It also means to do everything that needs to be done to finish something. “The builder will complete” – (verb)” the house next month.

COMPLEX – (adjective) means made up of many parts, often with the added idea that it is therefore difficult to understand. “Computers and television sets are very complex. The instructions on how to repair the machine were so complex that we could not understand what to do.

COMPLICATED – (adjective) means hard to understand because it is very complex. See COMPLEX.” The teacher’s explanation of the theorem was so complicated that no one in the class could understand it. ” See THEOREM.

COMPLIMENT – (noun) A compliment is a something good said about someone. You usually say you pay a compliment to someone. This means you say something nice to that person. For example “to tell a girl that she is pretty is a compliment or to tell a boy that you think he plays football well is also a compliment.

COMPLIMENTARY is the adjective from compliment. “He thought she was a very good person and said many complimentary things about her.

COMPONENT – (noun) means one of the parts that make up a whole thing. “There are many components in a house. Some of them are: the walls, the roof, the widows and the doors. What are the main components of a motor car?

COMPOSE – (verb) 1. Compose means to make up out of words.” He will compose a sentence. She composed a poem. “2. It also means to make up music “I heard a beautiful song on the radio and I wonder who composed it. “ 3. It also means to put things together in a way that they look beautiful. See COMPOSITION. See CONSIST OF.

COMPOSED – (adjective) When you talk about a person being composed you mean that they are calm and not upset and feeling confident that they can do what they have to do even if it is going to be difficult. “The composed football player easily converted” “the penalty kick.

COMPOSITE – (noun) means something that is made up of different things. “A cake is a composite; it has flour, egg, milk, fat and baking powder in it.” Composite can also be used as an adjective. “A cake is a composite thing.

COMPOSITE NUMBER – (noun) In maths a composite number means a number that can be exactly divided by a different number that is not itself or 1. 10 is a composite number – (it can be exactly divided by 2 or 5). 30 is a composite number – (it can be divide d by 2 or 3 or 5). 5 is not a composite number – (it can only be divided exactly by 1 or 5).

COMPOSITION – (noun) 1. Composition means a short story about some subject that your teacher asks you to write. “He wrote a composition about birds.” 2. Composition also means the way in which parts of a complex thing are put together. See COMPLEX. “The composition of this concrete is 1 part of cement to 3 parts of sand and 5 parts of stone.” “The composition of bread is flour and yeast and water.” 3. It also means the way things are put together in a picture or painting. “I like the composition in this photograph.

COMPOUND – (noun) 1. A compound is something that is made up of a mixture of different parts. It has a similar meaning to composite. It is most often used when referring to chemicals and plastics. “This chemical compound smells very bad. Rubber and plastic are compounds because they are made up from a number of chemicals. ” 2. Compound can also be used as an adjective. For example a compound sentence is a sentence that has two main clauses joined by a conjunction like ‘and’ or ‘but’. This is a compound sentence: “They came in and they sat down.” A compound word is a word made up from two words.” Schoolboy, sunlight and doorbell are all compound words.

COMPOUND INTEREST – (noun) First you should look up INTEREST & CAPITAL. There are two kinds of interest: Simple Interest & Compound Interest. Compound interest works as follows: If you were paying 10% compound interest PER ANNUM – (Annum means year) o n a loan of R1000, then at the end of the first year 10% x R1000 = 10/100 x R1000 = R100 would be added to the loan making it R1000 + R100 = R1100. At the end of the second year 10% x R1100 = 10/100 x R1100 = R110 would be added to the loan making it R11 00 + R110 = R1210. And so the amount owed would increase year by year. If any repayments were made during the year they would be subtracted from the loan. This example has been done on an annual basis. According to the agreement made when the loan was given the interest could also be calculated on a monthly basis or even on a daily basis. Bank overdraft interest is usually calculated on the daily balance. So if the annual rate of interest was 15% for example and the interest was to be added on a monthly basis on a loan of R1000 then 15%/12 x R1000 = R12,50 would be added to the monthly balance owed. After the second month 15%/12 X R1012.5 = R12.66 would be added and so on. With simple interest instead of adding the interest to the loan at the end of the period the interest is paid back to the person who lent the money and the amount of the loan remains fixed. This is called a fixed loan. See also ARREARS & IN ADVANCE. See DAILY BALANCE.

COMPOUND FRACTURE – (noun) A compound fracture is a fracture when the broken bone cuts through the flesh and sticks out.

COMPRISE – (verb) means to be made up of.” This class comprises all the clever students so the average mark is high. This list comprises all the friends I want to come to my party. ” – (You can also use ‘to be comprised of’) “What is this book comprised of?” “It is comprised of short stories for children.

COMPUTATION – (noun) is the action of working out a maths problem. “His computation was too fast and he got the wrong answer.

COMPUTE – (verb) means to calculate or work out an answer. “The clever boy was able to compute the difficult problem and get the correct answer.

COMPUTER – (noun) A computer is an electronic instrument which can do mathematical problems at great speed. A computer can also be used to store large amounts of information which it can sort and retrieve at great speed. The information is put into t he computer by using a key board. See KEYBOARD. The information can be seen on a screen like a TV screen or it can be printed out on paper. Computers can also be made to control machinery. For example an aeroplane can be flown by a computer. Traffic lights can be controlled by a computer.

CONCAVE – (adjective) is a word that describes the way a curved line is facing. Curving inwards. See diagram 15.

CONCAVE POLYGON – (noun) See diagram 8.

CONCAVITY is the noun from CONCAVE.

CONCENTRIC – (adjective) means having the same centre point. See diagram 17.

CONCEPT – (noun) means idea. “That is a good concept. If you act on it, it will help everyone. He has no concept of how to do maths. He likes the concept of beauty. ” Usually a person gets a concept or idea of what he wants to do or make before he acts. An idea or concept is something in the mind. What he does or makes is in the world around him. See SUBJECTIVE and OBJECTIVE.

CONCRETE – (noun) 1. Concrete is a mixture of sand, stone, cement and water that sets into a hard mass after it is mixed. It takes about 24 hours to set, but needs at least a week to set so that it is strong. The longer it is left to set the stronger it gets. It is used a lot in buildings for foundations, floors and pillars. Reinforced concrete is very strong because it has steel bars in it. 2. Concrete is also used as an adjective when it means that something exists in the world around us; something that you can see and touch.” Table Mountain is a concrete example of a mountain. The mountains he dreams about climbing one day are just ideas in his mind; they are not concrete. ” Qualities like beauty, truth and sweetness are called ABSTRACT things because you cannot touch them. ABSTRACT is the opposite of CONCRETE. See ABSTRACT.

CONCURRENT – (adjective) 1. In Maths, concurrent means meeting at a common point. See COMMON. If you say the 3 lines are concurrent you mean they all cross at the same point. See diagram 2. 2. Concurrent also means happening at the same time. If you say the blows of the two boxers were concurrent you would mean that they hit each other at the same time.

CONCURRENTLY is the adverb of CONCURRENT. “The 400 meter race and the 5000 meter race took place concurrently. Therefore he could not take part in both, so he chose the 400 meter race.

CONCURRENT TRIANGLE – (noun) See diagram 30.

CONDITION – (noun) 1. Condition means the way a person or thing is or exists. It is the same as state of being. “The sick person’s condition is very bad and she may not live. This horse is in very good condition and probably will win the race. The old car was not in a road worthy condition so he could not get a licence for it”. 2. Condition also means something necessary or required.” The condition for you to go out is that you must first do your homework. The conditions for passing are that you must get more than 40% in each subject. The conditions that fulfil the requirements for the job are that you must be over 20 and have passed Standard 8.

CONDUCT 1. Conduct means the way you behave. “Polite people say good morning when they meet you. That is called good conduct “- (noun). Or you can also say that “you must please conduct “- (verb) “yourself well when you go to the party.” ““2. Conduct – (verb) also means to lead. “ He conducted the orchestra badly. “3. It also means to manage.” He conducts his business well so he makes a lot of money.

CONDUCTOR – (noun) has three main meanings. 1. It means someone who leads, like the conductor of an orchestra. 2. It also is the name of the person who takes the tickets on a bus or a train. “There was no conductor on the bus so no one had to pay for his ticket”. 3. Conductor also means a wire along which electricity can flow. “Copper wire is a good conductor.” See CONDUCT.

CONE – (noun) A cone is similar to a pyramid, but it has a circular base. See diagram 21. See PYRAMID.

CONFIRM – (verb) means to make certain. “He confirmed the news that his friend had an” “accident by going to look visit him in the hospital.

CONFIRMATION – (noun) Confirmation is the action of confirming something. “He told me he would buy my car at the end of the year for R20 000 so I asked him for a letter of confirmation.” See CONFIRM.

CONFUSE – (verb) 1. Confuse means to do something that causes a person to be uncertain and not able to think clearly.” The many large words the teacher used confused the school children. He had never been in a big city before and the many street s confused him so he lost his way. ” 2. Confuse also means to be uncertain about the difference between two things or people. “ I always confuse John with his twin brother Peter.” 3. When you say a person is confused you can also mean that person is shy and embarrassed. “When she had to get up and talk to the whole class she felt very confused.” See EMBARRASS.

CONFUSION – (noun) 1. Confusion is the state of being confused. In the examples above you could say the person was in a state of confusion. 2. Confusion also can be used to describe things. “After the thieves had searched the house for money and turned out all the drawers the place was in a state of confusion.

CONGRUENCE or CONGRUENCY are the nouns from congruent. They both mean the state of being CONGRUENT. See CONGRUENT.

CONGRUENT – (adjective) is the word used to describe two geometric figures when the only difference between them is their position in space. For example any two squares that have the same length for their sides are congruent; any two circles that have the same diameter are congruent. There are four different ways that two triangles can be checked to see if they are congruent. See diagram 14.

CONIC is the adjective of CONE. It means like a cone or to do with a cone. “His hat was conic in shape.

CONIC SECTION – (noun) means the cutting of a right – (circular cone by a plane. Various other figures are obtained by doing this. See diagram 26. See RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE. See PLANE.

CONJUNCTION – (noun) 1. A conjunction is the name for a word that joins words, phrases, clauses and sentences. ‘And’ and ‘but’ are co-ordinate conjunctions. ‘Both …… and’, and ‘either …… or’ are correlative conjunctions. ‘After and ‘because’ are subordinate conjunctions. 2. Conjunction also means a coming together or a joining together.” The conjunction of sunny weather and rain will give large crops. I will do this in conjunction with Sheila.

CONSCIOUS – (adjective) 1. Conscious means being aware. “When the ball hit his back he was conscious of a sudden pain. She was not conscious of him climbing in the window. ” 2. Conscious also means known to one self.” That was a conscious lie.

CONSECUTIVE – (adjective) 1. Consecutive means following without missing out anything. 5, 6, 7 & 8 would be consecutive numbers. 5, 7, 9, 11 are not consecutive numbers. 2. Consecutive also means following in logical – (See LOGICAL) order. “Because he gave a clear consecutive account of what happened we understood him easily.

CONSIDER – (verb) means to think, usually to make a decision or to find an answer to some question. “I am considering if I should go or not. He considered the problem, but could not find the answer. What do you consider I should do about this difficulty? He is considering your suggestion that we should all go for a swim.

CONSIDERATION – (noun) 1. Consideration means a considering. “The teacher will give Tommy’s suggestion careful consideration.” 2. Consideration also means some money given for something.” He gave him a small consideration for posting his letters. ” 3. It also means thoughtfulness for others and their fee lings. “ He played his trumpet very loud without any consideration for the feelings of others. 4”. Taking into consideration means to make allowance for. “Taking into consideration the fact that she has just lost her little brother, it would be unfeeling to ask her to come along and dance with us.

CONSIGN – (verb) means to send something.” He consigned the books to me by book post. The coal was consigned by rail”.

CONSIST OF – (verb) means to be made up of or to contain.” What does this cake consist of? It consists of flour, egg, fat, sugar and baking powder. What does school consist of? School consists of teachers, school children, books and class rooms. ” When you ask what something is composed of it means the same as what does that thing consist of.

CONSTANT – (noun) 1. A constant is a number which does not vary. In maths there are some important constant numbers such as – ( <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>p<:f> = 3,14159) See PI. 2. In algebra constants are either actual numbers or usually the first letters of the alphabet. Numbers which can vary – (See VARIABLE) are usually the last letters of the alphabet. For example in the expression ax + by + cz = 5, x, y & z are variables and a, b, c & 5 are constants. 3. Constant – (adjective) means the condition of not varying. “Her love for him was constant.”

CONSTRUCT – (verb) 1. Construct means to build.” The workmen constructed the house. The engineers constructed the dam. “2. In geometry construct means to add extra lines or curves to a given figure. You are usually told some things about the lines to be constructed. For example you could be asked to construct a line at right angles to another line so that it passes through a given point. See diagrams 1 & 2. Or you could be asked to draw a circle with its centre at a certain point so that its circumference goes through another point.

CONSTRUCTION is the noun of construct. It is the action of building something or the result of building something or drawing new lines on a diagram. See diagram 2.

CONSUMPTION – (noun) means the using up of something or the amount used up. “The petrol consumption of the big lorry was 3 times as much as that of this small car. In the desert where there is very little water one must be very careful about water consumption. Electricity consumption is costing too much so we must switch of f all the lights when we don’t need them.

CONTACT – (verb) 1. Contact means to touch. “When the bat contacted the ball it made a sharp noise.” ““2. Contact also means to get into communication with. “ I will try to contact you by phone. ” ““3. In geometry it means when one line touches another line at a single point. See diagram 16A.

CONTAINER – (noun) is the name for something like a box or a tin that you can put something in. “The petrol was stored in a metal container. The apples came in a cardboard container. When goods are sent by ship to other countries they usually go in very large metal containers.

CONTAINING – (present participle of verb to contain) means having something inside it. A tin containing petrol means a tin with petrol in it. “Here is a box containing 20 oranges.

CONTINUE – (verb) means to carry on with something.” Although he could see that I wanted to say something he continued talking. He continued drawing the line until it reached the edge of the paper. He continued running although he was very tired.

CONTINUOUS – (adjective) means without a stop or break. “The continuous work made him very tired. The continuous fence had no gate so he had to climb over it. ” CONTINUAL also means something that goes on and on, but there can be short stops in between. For example you would talk about the continual ringing of the bell or the continual barking of the dog or the continual noise of the traffic

CONTOUR – (noun) 1. Contour means the outline of anything. “The contour of her face is beautiful. “ 2. Contour also is used as short for contour line which is a line on a map joining all points at a definite height above sea level. On a map of mountainous country the contours are very irregular whereas on a map of gently sloping country the contours are more regular. See DIAGRAM 54. 3. Contour is also used as an adjective. “The contour path is longer, but does not go up and down so much as the direct route.


CONTRACT – (noun) A contract is a written agreement between two people. For example when someone wants a builder to build a house for him a contract is written that has the plans of the house, the type of materials to be used, the date of starting and the date of completion and all other details including the amount to be paid. All these details will be written in clauses. See CLAUSE. A contract has to be signed by both people. The people signing a contract are called the parties to the contract. A contract for the sale of a house or a piece of land is called a deed of sale. See DEED.

CONVERGE – (verb) means to get closer and closer. “The two roads converged and finally met at the traffic circle. Two straight lines that converge will meet at a point. ” See diagram 15.

CONVERGENT is the adjective of CONVERGE.” Convergent lines will meet at a point. ” See diagram 15.

CONVERGING – (present participle of verb to converge) means the same as convergent.

CONVERSION is the noun from convert. See CONVERT. “He found the conversion from millimetres to metres very easy.

CONVERT – (verb) 1. Convert in maths means to change from one unit into another unit. For example if you are told to convert millimetres into metres you divide by 1000. 2400 mm would be equal to 2400 divided by 1000 which equals 2,4M. When you want to convert from one unit to another you need to know the ratio of one unit to another. In this example the ratio is 1000 because 1000 mm are equal to 1 metre. To convert metres to millimetres you multiply by 1000. For example 5,432M are equal to 5432 mm. 2. Convert means to change from one type of thing to another type. “These machines convert wool into clothing. He had his car converted from petrol to natural gas” – (his car would now run on bottled gas instead of petrol).” When you travel to U S A you must convert your money from South African Rand to U S Dollars.” 3. A person can change from believing in one religion to another religion. “At the age of 12 years he converted from Mohammedanism to Christianity.

CONVEX – (adjective) describes the way a curve is facing. Curving outwards. See diagram 15.

CONVEX POLYGON – (noun) See diagram 8.

CONVEY – (verb) 1. Convey means to transport or carry. See CARRY.” Large quantities of coal are conveyed by rail. “2. Convey can also be used about carrying ideas and meanings from one person to another. If you ask what this book conveys to you, you are asking what ideas and meanings are carried over to you from the book, or in other words what does this book mean to you or what do you understand from reading this book. “He could not understand what the teacher was talking about so she conveyed nothing to him.

CO-ORDINATES – (noun) The co-ordinates of a point on a plane – (See PLANE) define the exact position of that point with reference to some fixed lines on that plane. See diagram 18. See RECTANGULAR CO-ORDINATES.

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY – (also known as analytical geometry) This is a study of geometry where the positions of points are specified by means of co-ordinates.

COPY – (noun) A copy of something is something else that is made to look like it. “I liked her dress so much that I made a copy of it. Photocopy machines are useful because they make almost exact copies. ” You talk about a copy of that book or of that newspaper because all of them are made the same by a printing machine and they lo ok as if they are copies of one another.

CORE – (noun) means the hard central part containing the seeds or the central or most important part. “He never ate the core of the apple. The core of his reading problem was his bad eyesight.

COROLLARY – (noun) A corollary is a theorem which follows from another theorem with little or no proof, because once you have proved the first theorem to be true it is pretty obvious that the corollary is true. You should look in your geometry book f or an example of a corollary and see that you understand how a corollary is dependent on another theorem being true. See THEOREM.

CORRECT 1. Correct – (adjective) means that the there is no mistake, that the answer is right. T” he clever boy got all his sums correct. ” 2. Correct can also be used as a verb when it means to check the answers and mark them correct or incorrect. See ACCURATE.

CORRELATE – (verb) means to show the connection between things. If you were asked how the weather and food correlate the answer would be that when there are good rains there is plenty of food and when there is a drought there is a shortage of food. If you were asked to correlate the following into pairs: boy, bird, dam, girl, aeroplane, cup, lake, saucer. The answer would be: boy & girl; bird & aeroplane; dam & lake; cup & saucer.

CORRELATIVE – (adjective) means used in pairs. ‘Either’ …. ‘or’ are correlative conjunctions because they are used in pairs. See CONJUNCTION.

CORRESPOND – (verb) has several meanings. 1. It can mean to write letters to each other. “The two friends corresponded for years although they lived in different countries. “ 2. It can also mean to agree. “The ideas on music of the two friends correspond.” 3. Correspond in geometry means that two particular angles are equal to each other when one line cuts across two parallel lines. See PARALLEL. See ALTERNATE. See CORRESPONDING. See diagram 6.

CORRESPONDENCE – (noun) 1. Correspondence usually means the letters that people write to each other. “He is writing letters to answer all the correspondence he got in the post last week. “ 2. Correspondence also describes the condition of two angles corresponding. “Prove the correspondence of angle A and angle B.

CORRESPONDING is the present participle of the verb to correspond. See PARTICIPLE. See CORRESPOND. When two angles correspond they are called corresponding angles. See diagram 6.


COSECANT – (noun) See diagram 20 to see what the cosecant of an angle is. See also diagram 25.

COSINE – (noun) See diagram 20 to see what the cosine of an angle is. See also diagram 24.

COTANGENT – (noun) See diagram 20 to see what the cotangent of an angle is. See also diagram 25.

COULD – (verb) is the past of can.” Yesterday I could not do it, but today I learned how to and now I can.

COUNCIL – (noun) is the name of a number of people called together for some special purpose like giving advice or managing something. For example one very often hears about the Town Council. A Town Council consists of a group of people who make the local laws and carry out the business of running a town like looking after the roads and the water and electricity supply. SEE ADVICE.

COUNT – (verb) means to find the number of things there are or the number of things that happen. “He counted the bananas in the bunch and found that there were 5. He counted the number of times he could jump over the rope. ” If you tell someone to count up to ten then you are telling him to say the numbers 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 & 10. If you tell someone to count from 11 to 15 then he must say the numbers 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15. If you say to someone he must count out aloud then you are telling him to say the numbers out aloud as he counts. When a person counts on his fingers it means he uses his fingers to count up to ten.

COUNTDOWN – (noun)#> is the calling of the minutes and seconds in the last stages of launching a rocket. For example the last 10 seconds before the time of launching would be counted down like this: 10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0. Each number being called at one second intervals. See SECOND.

COUNTER-CLOCKWISE – (adjective) means in the opposite direction to that of the hands of a clock. See ANTI-CLOCKWISE & CLOCKWISE. See diagram 17.

COURT – (noun) 1. A court is a place where a person who is accused of breaking the law is judged by a judge. “Because he did not pay his traffic fine he had to go to court where his fine was doubled.” 2. A court is also a partially closed in space or a space for playing a sport.” Meet me at the tennis court for a game. “3. Court is another name for a royal palace. “ He went to the court of the king.

CREATE – (verb) means to cause to be. “She created a big disturbance with all her screaming. He created a house and garden for his family.

CREDIT comes from a word in the Latin language. The verb ‘credo’ means I belive. So credit has a lot of meanings which have to do with belief. It also has meanings to do with a person getting a good name or getting praise. This would be because someone who has shown that he can be trusted – (Believed in) would get a good name and also would be praised. So here are some of the definitions followed with sentences. 1. Believe – (verb): “I credit what you tell me because I know that you do not tell lies. “ 2. Praise – (noun): “The fact that he cares for sick people is to his credit. The person who does the work should get the credit. ” 3. Good name – (noun): “He is a man of credit because he always does what he says he will do. “ 4. Credit has a number of meanings to do with money. A creditor – (someone who believes one will pay him) supplies someone like a shopkeeper with GOODS on credit – (noun). This means that he supplies the goods before he has been paid. He believes and expects that the shopkeeper will pay him – usually in one month’s time. The shopkeeper is called a DEBTOR by the person who supplied him with the goods; a debtor is a person who owes you money. A creditor is someone to whom you owe money. 5. If you say your bank account is in credit – (noun) you mean that you have money in your account and that it is not OVERDRAWN. 6. When you say a person has good credit or a good credit rating you mean that he has a good reputation of paying his debts. 7. The credit – (adjective) side of a LEDGER is the right hand side and that is the side where payments are entered that are made for goods on credit – (noun). 8. When you credit – (verb) an account with some money you make the entry for that money on the right hand side of the ledger.

CREDITOR – (noun) A creditor of yours is someone who owes you money. See CREDIT.

CRIME – (noun) An action that is against the law. To steal someone else’s property is against the law, so to steal would be a crime. “If you take that money you will be committing a crime.

CRITERION – (noun) – (Plural – criteria) means the standard or rule by which something is judged or tested. “The criterion that to be happy you must have lots of money is not true, because many rich people are not happy. The criteria of a good student are that he understands what he has learned and can do what he has learned.

CRITICAL – (adjective) 1. Critical means inclined to find fault. “She is a very critical person always saying how bad things and people are.” 2. Critical also means full of danger and difficulty. “It was a critical time as it looked as if the two countries were going to start a war.

CROSS has a number of meanings. It is used both as a noun and as a verb, also as an adjective and as an adverb. 1. A cross – (adjective) person is someone who is in a bad temper or annoyed. “Her mother was cross” – (adverb)” with her because she did not do her homework. ” 2. As a verb it means to go from one side to the other. “ There were so many cars he was afraid to cross the road. ” 3. It also means to draw a line across something.” His writing is bad because he does not cross “- (verb)” the letter t. If you make this line longer it will cross that line. Parallel lines do not cross. ” See PARALLEL. 4. If you cross something out, on a page, it means that you draw a number of lines through it. This means that it is wrong and you don’t really want it there. 5. As a noun it means things that have two straight parts that cross each other. Examples of this are the cross on a grave and the cross your teacher makes next to something that you have got wrong. An X is actually a small cross.

CROSS SECTION – (noun) A cross section is what you see when you cut through an object and look at the cut section. See diagrams 23 & 54.

CRUTCH – (noun) 1. A crutch is a support to help someone walk who has a bad or missing leg. “When he hurt his foot playing soccer he had to walk on a crutch for a week”. 2. In maths a crutch is a number that you write down when doing a sum so as to help you. The small figures in the diagram are called crutches. You will also use crutches when you learn long division. See diagram 40.

CUBE – (noun) A cube is an object with 6 square sides. See diagram 21. Cube has another meaning. The cube of a number is the number multiplied by itself, twice. For example the cube of 2 is 2 x 2 x 2 = 8. The cube of 3 is 3 x 3 x 3 = 27. The short way to write this is 2&>3 &> or 3&>3 &> .

CUBE ROOT – (noun) The cube root of a number is the opposite of the CUBE. The cube of a number is that number, that when multiplied twice by itself – (3 times altogether) will give you the first number. For example the cube root of 27 is 3 because 3 x 3 x 3 = 27. The cube root of 8 is 2 – (2 x 2 x 2 = 8). The cubed root sign can be used for short. <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>!<:f>27 = 3 or <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>!<:f>8 = 2. See SQUARE & SQUARE ROOT.

CUBIC MEASURE – (noun) When you work out the VOLUME of an object the answer is given in cubic units. The basic object in maths is the CUBE. The volume of a cube is found by multiplying its LENGTH by its BREADTH and again multiplying that answer by its HEIGHT: Length x breadth x height = volume. Now you will find that for a cube the length, breadth and height are all in the same size. So the volume of a cube is length x length x length or breadth x breadth x breadth or height x height x height. A short way of writing this is – (length)&>3 &> or – (breadth)&>3 &> or – (height)&>3 &> . If you are asked to find the volume of a cube that is 2 centimetres high then the answer is 2 x 2 x 2 = 8. The unit will be cubic centimetres. So the complete answer is 8 cubic centimetres. The volume of a cube that is 1 metre high will be 1 x 1 x 1 = 1 cubic metre. The volume of a cube that is 4 metres high will be 64 cubic meters. See if you can work this out. The volume of a cube of 2M sides is 8 M&>3 &>. The volume of a box measuring 1M by 1,5M by 2M is 3 M&>3 &>.

CURRENT 1. Current as a noun means something that is flowing. “The current in the river was so strong that she got washed away. “ 2. It is often used to mean a current of electricity. “When you press the switch the current “- (noun)” will flow through the light bulb and you will be able to see at night. “ 3. Current as an adjective means that which is happening now. The current fashion is to wear loose clothes. “The current interest rate is 10%.

CURVATURE – (noun) is the name for the amount that a line curves.” He bent the rod ““until its curvature was just right to fit.

CURVE – (noun) 1. A curve is a line that has no straight part. “Her writing is lovely. It is made up of beautiful curves. ” 2. A curve that has the same amount of CURVATURE all the way is a circle. See diagram 16. 3. Curve is also the name for a part of a road that is not straight.” The car that went too fast around the curve went off the road.” 4. When a line curves first one way and then the other it is called a wavy line. 5. A curve that comes back around and meets itself again is called a closed curve. 6. If it does not meet itself it is called an op en curve. See diagram 46. 7. A curve is another name for a graph. See diagram 19.

CURVED FACE – (noun) See diagram 21.

CUSTOM – (noun) A custom is anything that is usually done. Each country has its own customs. For example “a custom in U S A is to eat hot dogs and hamburgers. A custom in France is to drink wine with meals. Beer drinking is a popular custom in South Africa. ” See POPULAR. Do not confuse the plural of custom which is customs with the definition at CUSTOMS.

CUSTOMER – (noun) A customer is a person who buys something from someone who has goods to sell. “She is a very good customer at that shop; she is always buying new clothes there.

CUSTOMS – (noun) are taxes paid to the government on things brought in to the country from other countries. The customs on these clothes made in France are so high that they will have to be sold at a very high price. This kind of tax is also called duty. “The duty on cigarettes is higher that on brandy.” See CUSTOM.

CUT – (verb) means to use a knife or something sharp to make an opening in something. The opening that is made when a knife cuts a person is called a wound or a cut – (noun). When you cut something in two it means that the knife went right through and you end up with two pieces. When you cut something in half it means you cut it into two so that the two pieces are the same size.

CYCLE – (noun) 1. Cycle is a short name for a bicycle. 2. Cycle is also used to describe any action which starts at one point, then goes through some changes and then comes back to the point it started. For example the sun completes a cycle every day. It rises, goes overhead and then sets, but the following day it rises again and goes through the same cycle again. The moon completes its cycle every 28 days. The tide in the sea completes its cycle every 12 hours approximately. The tide rises for about 6 hours until high tide, then it falls until it is low tide about 6 hours later and then it rises again until high tide is reached and so on. Some cycles are very quick and some much slower. The cycle of life is birth, growth and then death. 3. Cycle can also be used as a verb with the same meanings. “It took half an hour to cycle into town. The rope hanging in the tree was cycling from one side to the other in the wind.

CYCLIC – (adjective) means acting in a cycle or like a cycle. See CYCLE.

CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL – (noun) See diagram 10.

CYCLING TOUR – (noun) means a long ride across a country on a bicycle that lasts more than one day.

CYCLIST – (noun) name for a person who is riding a bicycle. 

CYLINDER A cylinder – (noun) is an object with round sides and flat ends. See diagram 21.

CYLINDRICAL – (adjective) means having a cylindrical shape or like a cylinder.