DAILY BALANCE – (noun) means a bank balance that is calculated every day. If interest is earned on ‘daily balance’ the interest on the capital is calculated for a period of 1 day and added to the capital to get the new balance. If the interest is calculated on a ‘monthly basis’ then the interest for a period of one month is calculated on the balance at the end of the month and added to it to get the new balance. If it is on an ANNUAL basis the interest on the capital is calculated for a period of one year. See COMPOUND INTEREST.

DAMAGE 1. Damage – (noun) means something destructive that is done to something. “When the car ran into the pole there was a lot of damage done to the front of the car.” 2. Damage – (noun) to a person is injury to some part of his body. “When the car ran over his foot it did it a lot of damage.” 3. Damage can also be used as a verb. “When the car ran over his foot it damaged it badly. “ 4. Damages – (the plural of damage) has a special legal meaning. See LEGAL. Damages means money claimed by law to make up for damage done to a person or his property.

DATA – (noun) means information. It is the plural of datum which means a single piece of information. “When he had all the data he needed he was able to work out his answer.

DATE – (noun) 1. A date is the way a particular day is described. See PARTICULAR & DESCRIBE. A day is described by the day of the month, the month of the year and by the year. For example, “the date of my birthday is 5th May 1970. Christmas falls on the 25th day of the month of December”, but if you want the date of a particular Christmas day you must say what year it was in. For example,” 25th December 2000” “was a very happy day for me.” 2. A date also means an agreement to meet someone somewhere at a certain time for a special purpose.” He has a date with his girl friend to go dancing. I have a date with my boss this afternoon to discuss the new factory.

DEAL – (verb) 1. To deal with something means to see that it satisfactorily handled. See HANDLE. “He dealt with the danger of the dog biting him by jumping over the fence. He is a hard person to deal with because he always wants to fight. “2. Deal also means to hand out.” Please deal the cards so we can start the card game. He dealt him a very hard blow which knocked him unconscious. ” See UNCONSCIOUS. 3. Deal also means to buy or sell something. “He deals in motorcars so he is called a motorcar dealer.

DEBIT – (noun) means an entry of something owed in an account or the left hand side of the page where this entry would be made. If you say you debit – (verb) an account it means that you are going to charge an account with an amount owed or make such an entry. 

DEBIT ORDER – (noun) A debit order is an instruction to a bank to debit one’s account with a stated amount of money and to credit the same amount to another bank account. It is very similar to a stop order. See STOP ORDER.

DEBT – (noun) means something that someone owes someone else. It is mostly used about money. “He has got money now, so he can pay his debt.

DEBTOR – (noun) A debtor is someone who owes you money. “If you are short of money why don’t you collect some money from your debtors?

DECAMETRE – (noun) is a unit of length equal to 10 metres. See DECIMETRE.

DECIMALS and FRACTIONS . – (nouns) If you have a whole number then you don’t need to use decimals or fractions, but when you have less than a whole number and only have part of a whole number you need to use either fractions or decimals. Before you learn about decimals you should understand fractions. So if you have not done this already look up FRACTION and study it till you really understand fractions. Using decimals is an easy way of writing down fractions if something has been divided into tens, hundreds or thousands. For example you would write six tenths as, 6. The comma is called the DECIMAL COMMA. If you had five hundredths and no tenths you would write it as, 05. If you had six whole things and six tenths and another six hundredths you would writ e it 6,66. You will notice that the comma comes between the whole numbers and the tenths. The position where the decimal comma comes is called the decimal place. The number 7820,5043 means that you have 7 thousands, 8 hundreds, 2 tens, no units, 5 tenth s, no hundredths, 4 thousandths and 3 ten thousandths. See diagram 47 for more examples. In some countries a point is used instead of a comma and this is called the DECIMAL POINT. See MOVE.

DECIMAL SYSTEM – (noun) is the name given to the whole system based on using a decimal comma. See DECIMALS.

DECIMETRE – (noun) A decimetre is one tenth of a metre or 10 centimetres or 100 millimetres. See DECAMETRE.

DECLARE – (verb) 1. Declare has a similar meaning to ANNOUNCE. It means to make known. “He declared his intention to go to Johannesburg.” 2. It is often used when talking about someone arriving back from being overseas and having to show the customs what things that were bought overseas are being brought back.” He said he had nothing to declare, but when they opened his suitcase they found he had many things on which he must pay customs duty. ” See CUSTOMS & DUTY. 3. Declare is also the word used when one country decides to go to war on another. “In 1939 England declared war on Germany.” 4. When a person becomes bankrupt one talks about that person being declared bankrupt. See BANKRUPT. You can see that in all these examples declare means to make known in one way or another.

DECREASE – (verb) means to make smaller or to make less. It is the opposite of INCREASE.

DEDUCE – (verb) To deduce is to do the action of working out something to get an answer. “The clever boy was able to deduce all the right answers. It was easy to deduce that the man was dressed up as a woman because of his deep voice. ” See WORK OUT & DEDUCTION.

DEDUCT – (verb) means the same as SUBTRACT. “If you deduct 2 from 5 you are left with 3. The employer deducted the pension payment from his salary. ” See PENSION.

DEDUCTION – (noun) Deduction has two main meanings. Firstly, deduction is the action of working something out to get an answer. “The policeman worked out by deduction that the thief was a heavy man because of the very deep footprints outside the window where he climbed in.” See DEDUCE. Secondly it is the action of taking something away from something else. “After the deduction of the cost of the taxi from his spending money he had very little money left.” See WORK OUT & DEDUCT.

DEED – (noun) 1. A deed is something that is done.” Diving into the sea and saving the drowning child was a brave deed. “2. A deed is also a legal document that has to do with the ownership of property. See LEGAL, DOCUMENT & PROPERTY. A Title Deed is a legal document that states who is the owner of a particular piece of property. See TITLE. A Deed of Sale is a legal document that records the sale of a piece of property. When someone sells some property the property has to be transferred into the name of the new owner. See TRANSFER. This is done in a Government Department called the Deeds Office which keeps a record of all property sales and all changes of ownership. “When he bought the house he and the previous owner had to sign a Deed of Sale. When the transfer was carried out by the Deeds Office and he had paid the price the deeds Office gave him a new Title Deed stating that he was the new owner.

DEFINE – (verb) 1. Define means to make clear.” The meanings of words are defined in a DICTIONARY. “2. It also means to DETERMINE the boundaries of an area. “ The field was defined by the road, the river and two fences”.” A TRIANGLE is defined by 3 straight lines that intersect at 3 different POINTS. ” See diagram 12.

DEFINITE – (adjective) means something that is clear or exact, something about which there is no doubt. “I made a definite plan to meet him at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning. When I asked if he stole the book he would not give me a definite answer.

DEFINITION – (noun) means the words that make clear the meaning of another word. “If you want to know the meaning of a word look up its definition in a DICTIONARY. He did not understand what he was reading because he did not know the definitions of many of the words in the book he was reading.

DEGREE – (noun) has 4 main meanings. 1. It is a unit for measuring ANGLES.” There are 90 degrees in a right angle. ” See diagram 5. 2. It is a unit for measuring temperature. “Water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees. The correct temperature for the blood of a human being is 37 degrees. ” See CENTIGRADE and FAHRENHEIT. 3. It also means the power of a variable. The degree of x in the expression x&>2 &> + y = 4 is 2. 4. It also means an AMOUNT.” He has a high degree of interest in maths and he is good at it. To what degree can you understand this book? The symbol for degree is ‘ &>0 &> ‘ 10 degrees is written 10&>0 &> .

DEGREE #> OF COMPARISON – (noun) means one of the three stages in the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. See COMPARISON. The three stages of the adjective ‘good’ are good, better & best. Better means more good. Best means most good. If you are comparing two things or people you say for example: “John is better than Peter in arithmetic, or coal is better than wood for a fire.” If you want to compare one thing or person with more than two others then you would say: “Peter is the best at arithmetic” This means that Peter is better than any of the others. You should look at your grammar book or speak to your teacher if you do not understand this properly. For some words you use the endings -er and -est. For others you use more and most. For example ‘sharp’ goes sharp, sharper and sharpest and ‘difficult’ goes difficult, more difficult and most difficult. You will just have to learn how each new adjective that you come across is compared. See COMPARE.

DELIVER – (verb) 1. Deliver means to take something and hand it over to a person or leave it at a place. “The load of bread was delivered to the supermarket. Go and deliver this envelope to the headmaster. ” 2. A person can also be delivered. “ After school I took the young girl home and delivered her to her mother. ” 3. Deliver also means to give birth to a baby or to help a mother give birth.” She delivered her baby on Christmas day. The doctor delivered her baby.

DELTA is the fourth letter of the Greek aphabet. Its symbol is <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>d<:f> .

DEMONSTRATE – (verb) has two main meanings. Firstly it means to take part in a public meeting to protest against something. “The people demonstrated in the town square to show that they wanted work. “ It also means to show how something works by actually using things. “The good teacher demonstrated how to fix a bicycle by taking his own bicycle to pieces in front of the class and putting it together again. The motorcar salesman demonstrated the car to the customer by taking him for a drive.

DENOMINATOR – (noun) means the number below the line in a fraction. See FRACTION and NUMERATOR. In the fraction 2/3 – (two thirds) 2 is the numerator and 3 the denominator.

DENOMINATION – (noun) The denomination of a number is the unit associated with that number. See ASSOCIATED. “The denomination of 10 kilograms is kilograms.

DEPARTMENT – (noun) A department is a separate section of an organisation that has a particular function. See PARTICULAR & FUNCTION. For example the City Council – (see COUNCIL) has a Department of Roads whose function is to repair the roads. A business can have a Sales Department, a Buying Department and other sections like this, each called a Department. The government of a country usually has many departments. For example the Department of External affairs deals with the affairs of the country with other countries.

DEPEND – (verb) has two main meanings. Firstly it means to rely on for help or support. “Young children depend on their parents for food and clothing. The team depended on their goal keeper to protect their goal. ” Secondly it means to be as a result of something else. “ It depends on a sunny day for us to want to go swimming. The match depends on the weather. If it rains it will not take place.


DEPENDING is the present participle of DEPEND. “Depending on how much money we have we will also have a good meal.

DEPOSIT . 1. Deposit means to put down. “He deposited” – (verb)” the books on the floor. A river deposits sediment on the river bottom. ” 2. It also means to put your money in an account in the bank. “ Every week he used to deposit” – (verb)” his money. ” 3. It can also be used as a noun. “ He made a deposit” – (noun)” in the savings bank.

DERIVATIVE – (noun) Derivative is a word used in Differential Calculus. If y = f(x) – (This is read as ‘If y is a function of x’) then the instantaneous rate of change is called the derivative and is written as dy/dx. die equals a very small change in the value of y brought about by a very small change in the value of x, dx. Differential Calculus is the name of the branch of maths that deals with derivatives. See diagram 18A.

DERIVE – (verb) means to get from somewhere. “He derives knowledge from books. He derives help from his friends. ” If you say, ““From where is that word derived?” ” you are asking where that word came from. For example” the word ‘bomb’ is derived from the Latin word ‘bombus’ which means a loud sound. The word ‘hour’ is derived from the Greek word ‘hora’ which means ‘time’.” In maths you talk about deriving a FORMULA which means working out a formula in such a way that you show where the formula comes from. See FORMULA.

DESCENDING – (present participle) means going down. “These numbers are arranged in descending order: 21, 19, 15, 11, 10, 9, 8, 5, 2.” ASCENDING is the opposite of DESCENDING.

DESCRIBE – (verb) 1. Describe means to tell or write about something. “Describe your father in about 50 words.” This means that you must write about 50 words telling things about your father like: what does he look like, how tall is he, what sort of a person is he, what colour are his eyes and other things like that. An adjective is a word that describes – (tells something about) another word. In ‘the big man’ ‘big’ is an adjective because it describes something about the man – (what size he was). 2. Describe also means to draw the shape of. You may be told to do this sort of thing: “Describe a circle around triangle AB” See diagram 16A.

DESIGN – (verb) means to make a plan of how something is going to be. A person usually works out a design in his mind first and then draws the design on paper. “He designed a house that he wanted to build. She designed a beautiful pattern to paint on the wall. ” A design – (noun) that is drawn on paper before building something is usually called a plan.

DETAIL – (noun) A detail means a small thing or a small piece of information. “The accident happened so fast that I could not remember all the details; just that a car rushed out of side street and knocked the man down. I don’t remember details like what colour it was, what its number was, what the driver looked like and other details like that”.

DETERMINE – (verb) has two main meanings. Firstly it means to decide.” He determined to be a teacher when he grows up. ” It also means to find out exactly. “ The captain determined the position of his ship accurately. ” If you are asked in a maths question to determine something it means you must work out the correct answer.

DEVELOP – (verb) means to change to become bigger or better. “Seeds develop” “into plants. A child develops” “into a man or a woman. He started with one small shop, but by hard work his business developed into a chain of 20 shops. “The change is not always for the better.” Because he smoked so many cigarettes he developed problems with his heart and lungs.

DEVICE – (noun) means something that has been put together for a purpose. “A washing machine is a device for washing clothes. This is a new device for peeling potatoes.

DIAGONAL – (noun) A diagonal is a line that joins any two non-adjacent corners of a polygon. See Diagram 8. See ADJACENT & POLYGON.

DIAGRAM – (noun) A diagram is a drawing made to show or explain something. “The teacher used a diagram that he drew on the black board to explain the THEOREM to the class. The builder used a diagram to show us where he would build the house.

DIAGRAMMATIC – (adjective) This means with the use of a diagram. See DIAGRAM.

DIAMETER – (noun) The diameter of a CIRCLE is a straight line drawn from one side of the circle through the centre to the other side. See diagram 16. The diameter of a circle is also the length of this line. See RADIUS. 

DIAMOND – (noun) 1. A diamond is the hardest stone there is. It is used to cut or polish other hard materials. When a diamond is cut and polished it turns into a bright and shiny thing. Diamonds are valuable. 2. The place where a baseball batsman stands to hit the ball is also called a diamond. 3. When one speaks of a diamond shape one means the shape shown in diagram 47.

DICTIONARY – (noun) 1. A dictionary means a book that contains the words of a language with the definitions of each word. The words in a dictionary are in alphabetical order so they can be easily found. 2. A dictionary also is a book that contains the words of one language with the translations from another language. It usually has two sections: one with the words of the first language in alphabetical order and one with the second language in alphabetical order. “When I go to France I will take my English-French dictionary.

DIFFERENCE – (noun) 1. Difference means the way two things are not the same. “The main difference between a cat and a lion is their size. The difference between summer and winter is that it is hotter in summer. “2. In maths difference means the answer when you subtract one number from another. For example “the difference between 9 and 3 is 6 and the difference between 20 and 18 is 2.

DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES – (noun) See Appendix II.5

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS – (noun) is that branch of maths that deals with derivatives. See DERIVATIVE.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION – (noun) A differential equation is an equation containing one or more derivatives.

DIGIT – (noun) 1. Any of the numbers 1, 2, 3,4,5,6,7,8,9 & 0 are called a digit. “The following number has 4 digits: 5467.” 2. A finger or a toe is also called a digit.

DIGITAL – (adjective) means something that has to do with digits. See DIGITAL COMPUTER.

DIGITAL COMPUTER – (noun) A digital computer is a computer that works with quantities expressed as DIGITS. Most computers today work on this basis. An analog computer works with quantities expressed in graphical form. See GRAPH.

DIMENSION – (noun) 1. Dimension means measurement. The dimensions of a box for example are its Length its Breadth and its Height. Similarly the dimensions of a room would be its length, its breadth and height. But the dimensions of a field would be just its length and its width – (breadth). 2. One also talks about the three dimensions of space. One dimension of space is up and down, another is left to right and the third from in front of one to behind one. See diagram 11.

DIRECT – (verb) has several meanings. 1. It means to show someone the way to go. “He directed me to the post office.” 2. It means the same as MANAGE which means to instruct people what to do in order to get something done, like running a business. “He is directing” “the traffic The manager is directing the workers of the business.” 3. It also has another meaning when used as an adjective: going in a straight line or by the shortest way. If you say go direct from school to home it means you must go home the quickest way without stopping to visit a friend or do something else on the way home. 4. It also means exact. “Her mother is cross because she did the direct” “opposite of what she was told.” See OPPOSITE.

DIRECT CURRENT – (noun) is an electric current which flows in one direction only. This is the sort of current you get from a battery. The abbreviation for direct current is D ABBREVIATION & CURRENT.

DIRECTLY is the adverb from direct. “Because he was short of time he went directly home.”

DIRECTOR – (noun) A director is a person who directs others. For example the person who leads an orchestra is called the director. A person who sits on the committee that makes the decisions on how to run a company is called a director. This committee is called the Board of Directors. See BOARD & COMMITTEE.

DIRECT TRANSFER – (noun) These two words together mean a transfer of money from one bank to another. If you have a bank account in the Cape Town Branch of a bank you can go to another branch of that bank, say the Jeppe St Branch in Johannesburg and de posit money and ask it to be directly transferred to your account in Cape Town. This is actually done on the banks computer system. The money will get credited to your account in Cape Town by the following day.

DISAPPEAR – (verb) means to no longer be able to be seen for some reason. “The mountain disappeared into the clouds. In summer the snow disappears” – (because it melts). “ The thief disappeared into the crowd. ” Disappear is the opposite of appear which means to come into view.

DISAPPOINT – (verb) means to fail to please because of something not being what is expected or hoped for. “She was very disappointed when she heard she had failed her exam. He was disappointed when his father told him he could not go with him to town. “

DISC – (noun) A disc is the word used for a round flat object like a coin or a gramophone record. A disc is a cylinder whose height is small in comparison with its diameter. See diagram 52.

DISCOUNT – (noun) is an amount taken off the price of something. Often shops will give a discount to people who pay cash instead of buying on terms. See TERM. “I got 10% discount on this car for cash.” If the price was R10000 then I paid R10000 minus 10% of R10000 = R10000 – R10000 x 10/100 = R10000 – R1000 = R9000. So you can see I saved R1000 by paying cash. Discounts are also given for other reasons like buying a big quantity at a time.” This shop gives 5% discount on bread if you buy 10 loaves at a time.

DISCOVER 1. Discover – (verb) means to find something for the first time.” After he discovered the treasure he became very rich. “See TREASURE. “ Columbus discovered America in the year 1492. ” 2. A discovery – (noun) is something that has been discovered. “ The discovery of gold was very important for South Africa. 

DISCRIMINANT – (noun) The discriminant of a quadratic equation ax&>2 &> + bx + c = 0 is b – 4a If b – 4ac <;> 0 them the equation has 2 distinct real roots. If b – 4ac = 0 then the equation has two equal real roots and if b – 4ac << 0 then t he equation has no real roots.

DISCUSS – (verb) means to talk about something from all points of view. “After they had discussed the problem for 2 hours they worked out a solution”. See POINT & SOLUTION.

DISSOLVE – (verb) means to disappear into water. If you put some sugar or salt into water and stir it the salt or sugar will disappear into the water. You say the sugar or salt dissolved in the water. You know the sugar or salt is in the water because you can taste them. There are lots of things that will dissolve in water. There are also other things like grease which will not dissolve in water, but will dissolve in another liquid like petrol. “Grease and tar will dissolve in petrol.” See DISAPPEAR & SOLUTION.

DISTANCE – (noun) is the measurement from one thing to another. For example “the distance from Cape Town to Johannesburg is approximately 1500 kilometres. The distance he ran was 5 kilometres. ” This means that the measurement from where he started his run to where he finished his run was 5 kilometres. In maths the distance between two points is the length of the straight line joining the two points and the distance between two PARALLEL lines is the length of the line joining the two lines at right angles. See diagram 6.

DIVERGENT – (adjective) is the opposite of CONVERGENT. 1. It means that two things are moving away from each other.” At the junction the two railway lines started diverging. You could say that they were divergent after the junction. ” Lines that are not parallel are divergent in the one direction, but convergent in the opposite direction. See diagram 47. 2. Divergent can also be used about things not directly to do with maths. For example “the two people had divergent ideas.” This means that the two people had ideas that were different – (moving away from each other).

DIVIDE – (verb) Means to separate into equal parts. Examples: “If you divide 4 by 2 you get two equal parts of 2. If you divide 5 by 5 you get five equal parts of 1. If you divide 9 by 3 you get three equal parts of 3. ” These three examples can be written for short as 4 <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0><\w><:f> 2 = 2. 5 <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0><\w><:f> 5 = 1. 9 <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0><\w><:f> 3 = 3. See DIVISION SIGN. This is the same as asking the question ‘How many times does 2 go into 4 or how many times does 5 go into 5 or how many times does 3 go into 9. Divide the cake equally means that the cake must be divided so each person gets a piece that is the same size. When you divide one number by another, what you are actually doing is repeated subtraction. See REPEAT. This is the opposite of multiplication where you are doing repeated addition. See MU LTIPLICATION. For example if you are asked to divide 6 by 2 you subtract 2 from 6 once and get an answer of 4; then you subtract 2 from 4 and get 2; then you subtract 2 from 2 and get an answer of 0. If you count the number of times that you subtracted 2 you will find that it is 3 times. So the answer is that 2 goes into 6 3 times. If you take 15 and divide by 5 you will find that you can subtract 5 from 15 3 times, so the answer to 15 divided by 5 is 3. In these two examples you were left with 0 when you had subtracted enough times. When you cannot get 0 left over then you call the amount left over the remainder. For example when you divide 9 by 2 you can subtract 2 from 9 4 times and then you have 1 left over. 1 is called the remainder. If you divide 18 by 7 you can subtract it 2 times and then you have 4 over. 4 is the remainder. See REMAINDER. You need to know your multiplication tables well to be able to divide quickly because then you will then know how many times you can subtract one number from another. In the example 15 divided by 3 you need to know your 3 times tables and that 3 x 5 is 15. Straight away you will know that you can subtract 5 3 times from 15 and get 0. So you will know the answer is 3. In the example 18 divided by 7 you need to know your 7 times tables so that you know straight away that 2 x 7 = 14 and 3 x 7 = 21. 3 is too big so the answer must be 2 with a remainder of 4. – (18 – 14 = 4). If you study this definition and try it out with other examples until you really understand what you are doing – (together with the definition at MULTIPLICATION) then you will really understand Multiplication and Division properly and be able to do them easily.

DIVIDEND – (noun) When you are doing division the number to be divided is called the dividend and the number you use to divide by is called the divisor. For example in the sum 8 <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>%<:f> 2 = 4, 8 is the dividend and 2 is the divisor.

DIVISION is the noun from DIVIDE. 1. “His division is not accurate because when he divided 6 by 2 he said the answer was 2”. 2. A division is also the name for the graduation marks on a ruler or scale. The smallest division on this scale is 1 millimetre. For the division of plus and minus quantities see Appendix II.1.

DIVISION SIGN The division sign is written <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>%<:f>. However one number written on top of another number with a horizontal line in between also means that the top number is to be divided by the bottom number. 4 <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>%<:f> 2 = 2, is the same as &>4 &>/’>2 ‘> = 2. Also a diagonal line between two numbers means that the first number is to be divided by the second. So &> 7 &>/’>100 ‘> , 7/100 and 7 <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>%<:f> 100 all mean that the number 7 is to be divided by the number 100.

DIVISOR – (noun) – See DIVIDEND.

DOCTRINE – (noun) means what is taught as true by a church, a nation or a group of people. “The doctrine of the Christian Church is the bible. The doctrine of the Church of Scientology is in the writings of Mr L R Hubbard.

DOCUMENT – (noun) A document is an important piece of paper with information written or printed on it. A document usually records some form of agreement. Documents are often called ‘legal documents’ because the agreement can be enforced by law. This means that if one of the people who signed the agreement does not do what he agreed to do the other person can take him to a court of law to get him to do what he agreed. See ENFORCE & LEGAL.

DOLLAR – (noun) is a unit of measure of money just like Rand. The word is used by a number of different countries. For example you get United States dollars – (Written US $) and Australian dollars. The dollars from different countries are usually not equal to each other in VALUE. The unit of money is written before the number. R1000 means one thousand Rand. US $500 means 500 United States dollars.

DOUBLE – (verb) means to make two of or to make twice as big.” He doubled his pay by working extra hours. The big man ate double the amount of food.

DOUBLE ENTRY – (noun) this is a method used in BOOKKEEPING in which each TRANSACTION is written down twice; once on the CREDIT side and once on the DEBIT side. You need to study a bookkeeping text book to get a full understanding of this system.

DOUBT – (noun) is a word for uncertainty or disbelief. It can be used as a noun or a verb. “He promised me that he will come tomorrow, but I doubt” – (verb) “that he will be there. I have my doubts – (noun) about his coming tomorrow.

DRAUGHT – (noun) Draught can also be spelled draft. Both are pronounced ‘draft’ Draught has several meanings. 1. One talks about a rough draft of something that one has written, but wants to check and correct before one makes the final copy. “The draught for his new book is now ready to go to the printers. “ 2. It also means a current of air. See FLOW. “Close the window because if you sit in that cold draught you may get a cold. “ 3. It also means a written order for something, usually money. “The instructions on the bank draught were for my bank to pay me R1000.” 4. It also means the depth of water that a boat or ship needs to be able to float.” Only shallow draught boats can come up the river. Big tankers can only come into deep harbours because their draughts are so big.

DRAW – (verb) has many meanings. – (Its past tense is ‘drew’ and ‘have drawn’) 1. To draw means to make a picture using a pen or pencil.” A good artist can draw pictures quickly. ” 2. To draw a wagon means to pull it along. “ The horse drew the carriage along the road. ” 3. To draw your hand from your pocket means to take it out of your pocket. “ When he drew his hand from his pocket I saw he was holding a gun. ” 4. To draw a salary means to get a salary. “ When he draws his salary at the end of month he will be able to repay me. He will draw the money he needs from his bank account. “5. To draw a CHEQUE means to write out a cheque. When you draw a cheque you must write down the following information: the date, the amount of money in words and in figures and the name of the person to whom you want to pay the amount. Then you must sign the cheque. See diagram 43. See CHEQUE. 6. To draw in means to take in.” He drew in a deep breath. ” 7. It also has a special meaning in games. When two sides draw it means that they both got the same score and nobody won the game. “They played to a two all finish so they drew the game. “ 8. To draw up a document means to prepare a document for some business or legal reason. “They drew up a document to conclude the sale of the business.

DROP – (verb) 1. Drop means to let fall. “He dropped the glass and it broke into pieces.” 2. Drop also has a special meaning in maths. You talk about dropping a perpendicular line from a point to another line. To see what this means look at diagram 1. To drop a line at right angles means the same thing.

DURATION – (noun) means the length of time that something lasts or goes on for. “The duration of the war was 4 years. The duration of the game was 1 hour.

DURING – (preposition) means in the time of. “I work during the day and sleep during the night.

DUTY means what a person should do. It is a soldier’s duty to fight for his country. It is a child’s duty to obey his parents. See PARENT. It is everyone’s duty to support his country. See SUPPORT. Duty has another meaning to do with customs. See CU STOMS. The tax that is charged on goods that are brought into the country from other countries is called duty.

DYNAMICS is a branch of maths that deals with forces that are in motion. For example using dynamics you can work out how fast a car will go if it is pushed along by a certain force.

e ‘e’ is a symbol used in maths for an irrational number – (See IRRATIONAL) whose value to 6 decimal places is 2,71812. It is defined as the limit as y tends to infinity of – (1 + &>1 &>/’>y ‘> )&>y &>. It is the base of the natural logarithm. For example if y = e&>x &> then log’>e ‘>y = x. See LIMIT.