FACE 1. Face as a verb means to stand facing. “The teacher told him to face the wall. “ 2. It also means to meet something without turning away or trying to avoid. “A brave man will face danger. He ran away because he was not able to face the result of what he had done. “3. As a noun it means that part of your body on which are the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the cheeks, the chin and the forehead. 4. It also means the front part. “The face of the house was painted, but the back was not. You must be able to see the face of a clock to tell the time. ” 5. In geometry face has a special meaning. It means a flat surface of an object. A cube has 6 faces. See diagram 21.
FACT – (noun) A fact is something that is true or really happened.” The fact is that he hit me first. If you don’t know the correct facts you will fail your examination.
FACTOR If a number is the product of two or more other numbers then those numbers are called factors of that number. For example 2 x 5 = 10 therefore 2 and 5 are factors of 10; 2 x 3 x 4 = 24 so 2, 3 and 4 are factors of 24. Factor also has a meaning in ordinary use. It means anything that tends to produce a result. “An important factor in his first class pass was that he studied hard. If we do not go out and sell our product it will become a factor in our possible failure.
FACTORISE verb) means to find the factors of. To do this you first see if 2 will go into the number and then 3 and then 5 and then 7 and then 11 & so on – (These are prime numbers – See PRIME NUMBER). For example if you are asked to factorise 140 you first divide by 2 and get 70. Then you divide 70 by 2 and get 35. Now 2 will not go into 35 so you now try 3. 3 will not go in so you now try 5 which gives 7. So the factors of 140 are 2, 2, 5 & 7. This is the same as saying 2 x 2 x 5 x 7 = 140. See Appendix x II.4 for factorising a quadratic equation.
FALSE – (adjective) 1. False means not true. Telling a lie and giving false information are the same thing. “He got me into trouble with the teacher by telling him false things about me. “ 2. False also means not loyal. “He turned out to be a false friend because he did not come to my aid and helped my enemies.
FEMININE – (adjective) means having to do with girls or women. “Boys are not interested in feminine things like dolls and dresses.” In grammar nouns that are to do with girls and women are in the feminine gender. See GENDER.
FEMINISM – (noun) means a doctrine of increased activities and life for women. “Because of feminism women can now wear trousers.
FEW – (adjective) 1. Few means not many. “Only a few people came to the meeting means that maybe 3 or 4 came when about 20 or 30 were expected.” 2. On the other hand if you say quite a few then you mean many.
FIGURATIVE – (adjective) means the use of words out of their ordinary meaning to add beauty or force. Figurative is the opposite of literal. See LITERAL.” He was very ill and his body felt on fire. ” This is a figurative use of ‘fire’ because although his body felt very hot it was not actually burning.
FIGURE has several meanings. 1. Firstly it is another name for individual numbers. 1, 2 and 3 – (nouns) are all figures. One, two and three are not figures; you would call them written numbers. 2. Figure can also mean a number that has more than on e digit. See DIGIT. “When I asked him what it would cost to build the house he gave me a figure of R100 000 that was twice what I expected. “ 3. Figure also means to work out – (verb). See WORK OUT.” See how quickly you can figure out the answer to this sum. ” 4. Figure also means a shape. “ Triangles and squares are geometric figures. In the dark he saw the figure of a man.
FILE It means something into which to store the sheets of a document. The simplest type of file – (noun) consists of a folded piece of cardboard a little bigger than 2 sheets of A4 size paper. There is usually some method of holding the sheets of paper in the file. 2. File also means a piece of hardened steel that contains a lot of small projections on its surface. “He filed through his hand cuffs and escaped.” 3. File can be used as a verb in both senses.” He filed the letters into the files. He filed through the lock and stole my money.
FILING CABINET – (noun) A filing cabinet is used to store files. It usually has 4 drawers. “The filing cabinet was locked and they did not have a key so they had to break into it.
FINANCE – (noun & verb) is the word used for money when one is talking about managing money, usually large amounts like for a big organisation or a government. “He financed” – (verb)” the purchase of the house by getting a loan from the building society. He will need a lot of finance “- (noun)” to start that big factory.” When one wants to borrow money to buy a house one usually goes to a financial institution. The person whose job it is to manage the money of our country is called the Minister of Finance. See FINANCIAL.
FINANCIAL – (adjective) means having to do with finance. A financial institution is a business like a Bank or Building Society. See INSTITUTION & BUILDING SOCIETY.
FINE has several meanings. It means an amount of money that a person must pay when he breaks the law. 1. “He paid a R1000” fine – (noun) “for driving his motor car dangerously. “ 2. Fine also means very good. “The goal keeper made a fine” – (adjective) “save. “ 3. It also means very thin. “That wire is so fine that I can almost not see it.
FINITE – (adjective) is the opposite of INFINITE. It means something with a definite size.” As we only have a finite amount of money to spend you must choose what you buy carefully. ” See INFINITE & DEFINITE.
FIRM 1. Firm – (adjective) means fixed so it will not be moved easily. “Because the foundations were not firm the wall fell down.” See FOUNDATION. “The table is not firm because one of its legs is too short. You can also talk about a firm purpose”. 2. If a person has a firm purpose he has decided what he wants to do and cannot easily be persuaded not to do it. See PURPOSE & PERSUADE. 3. Firm – (noun) also is another word for a business. You can say he works for a clothing business or he works for a clothing firm.
FIXED ASSETS – (noun) are things like: your house, a farm, a piece of ground. “He is a rich man and has a lot of fixed assets.” A motorcar, clothing and things like these are called movable assets. I
FIXED DEPOSIT – (noun) A fixed deposit is an amount of money that has been invested for a fixed period. See INVEST. If for example you invest your money on fixed deposit for one year you will have to wait one year before you can get your money back. Usually the longer the period the better the interest rate your money will earn.
FLAT – (adjective) means smooth and level. “A good floor should be flat; it should not have bumps in it and it should be level.
FLOW means to move along like water in a river. 1.” It rained so heavily that the water flowed “- (verb)” along the street.” 2. “The wind caused a flow “- (noun) “of air through the open window. “ 3. A flow – (noun) of air is also called a draught – (Pronounced draft).
FOLLOW – (verb) means to come after in time or in place. “1. Night follows day. The dog followed his master. “2. If you say you don’t follow what the teacher said it means that you did not understand him. 3. If you follow out someone’s instructions it means that you did just what he told you to do. 4. If you say you follow up something it means that you start with that thing and then do the next thing and so on till you get to a satisfactory end. See SATISFACTORY. “He followed up my suggestion to open a shop and now he makes a lot of money. The policeman followed up the clue and caught the thief. ““He followed up his meal with a cup of coffee.”
FOR – (preposition) 1. has several meanings. It means in place of. “We had to use a box for a table. “ 2. It means in return for. “Oranges at 1 for a Rand.” 3. It means with the purpose of. “He is going for a run.” 4. It means in support of. “I am for that idea. “ 5. It means to be used by. “This is a text book for children.” 6. It means to be used with that purpose in mind. “This is a text book for arithmetic “7. It means to amount to. “This is a bill for R120.” 8. It means as long as. “I ran for 1 hour; she ran for 5 kilometres. “ 9. It means in search of. “I am looking for a job.” 10. It means in relation to. “Exercising is good for you. “ 11. It means showing equality between two things. “The two statements agreed word for word. An equal exchange was made prisoner for prisoner”. 12. It means in proportion to. “For every boy at the youth meeting there were 3 girls.” 13. It means because of. “She was punished for telling lies.” 14. It means in exchange for. “He was given time off for his hard work.” 15. It means in honour of. “The party was for her birthday.
FORCE – (noun) means an amount of push. 1. “He held her down with so much force that she could not move. “ 2. When you talk about a government using force you mean they used police or soldiers. 3. You need force to move something. 4. Force is also a short name for the police force. “He joined the force because he liked the idea of being a policeman”. 5. In war time the forces means the army, navy and air force altogether. 6. If you say someone was forced – (verb) to do something you mean that he had to do it because he was afraid of something happening if he did not do it. “He was forced to sell his car so he could pay his bills.” See BILL.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE – (noun) Foreign exchange means money from other countries. The foreign exchange department of a bank is that department which deals in sending South African Rand to pay for goods bought in other countries and also in receiving money from other countries to buy goods in South Africa. “He changed R10000 into US dollars at the foreign exchange department of his bank to be able to pay for his hotel and other expenses in U S A”. See EXCHANGE RATE.
FORM – (noun) 1. Form means the way the outside of something looks. “He thought he recognized her form in the dark, but he was not certain it was her. “ “The form of an orange is round. “ 2. A form also means a piece of printed paper with spaces marked where information must be written. To send a telegram at the post office you must fill in a form. 3. If you say the short form of something you mean the abbreviation of something. See ABBREVIATION. “The short form of centimetre” “is cm. The plural form of boy is boys. “4. Form is also the name for a long seat that about 6 people can sit on.” The children at school sat on forms. “5. As a verb form means to take shape as or to give a shape to. “ In winter water forms ice. ” “He formed the clay into a girl’s head. 6”. Form also means the way of doing something especially sport. “This year he is in good form and he is winning all his matches. “ 7. It also means to bring into existence or to come into existence. “They formed a sports club in their area” “. Clouds formed in the sky. ”
FORMULA – (noun) 1. A formula is a set of instructions on how to do something or on how to get a result you want. – (The plural of formula is formulae) “ The formula for being liked is to listen carefully to people when they talk to you and not try to tell them anything until they have said what they want to say. This book has the formulae for making many kinds of nice cakes. ” “It gives the exact quantities of all the ingredients.” See INGREDIENT. 2. In maths a formula is a rule expressed in mathematical terms. For example the formula for the area of a rectangle is l x b where l is its length and b is its breadth; the formula for the area of a circle is <:f240, QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>p<:f>r&>2 &>. 3. In chemistry the formula of a compound is shown by symbols representing the elements. See SYMBOL. For example the formula of water is H’>2 ‘>O and the formula of carbon dioxide is CO’>2 ‘>, where C stands for an atom of the element carbon and O stands for an atom of the element oxygen and H stands for an atom of the element hydrogen. The small 2’s mean that there are two of hydrogen and 2 of oxygen. See ELEMENT, ATOM & COMPOUND.
FORMULAE – (noun) is the plural of formula. “He learnt all the formulae before the exam.
FOUNDATION – (noun) 1. A foundation is the base that a wall is built on. “This wall cracked because of a weak foundation.” See BASE. 2. Foundation can also mean other kinds of bases. “There was no foundation for him being accused of stealing.” “There was no foundation for this rumour. “ See RUMOUR. “A strong nation is built on the foundation of truth, justice and peace.
FRACTIONS & DECIMALS – (nouns) If you have a whole number then you don’t need to use decimals or fractions, but when you have less than a whole number and only have part of a whole number you need to use either fractions or decimals. Before you learn about decimals you should understand fractions. So first you must get to understand fractions properly. If you have a whole apple you say you have one apple. You can write this in arithmetic as 1 apple, but if someone gives you an extra half of an apple then you have one and a half apples. When you write down the number it will look like this 1. Fractions always have one number on top and other number on the bottom. With a typewriter this is usually written 1/2, but it is more correct to write it like this:. See DIVISION SIGN. The number on the bottom tells you how many parts make a whole and the number on the top tells you how many of those parts you have. For example if you cut an apple into quarters – (4 equal parts) and you eat 1 quarter then you are left with three quarters which you write like this, 3/4. If you eat another quarter then you have two quarters left, which is the same as a half. You would write this either as 2/4 or 1/2. If you divided something into five equal parts then you would have five fifths. This you can write as 5/5, but as you still have all the apple although it is divided into fifths you could also say 5/5 = 1. If you divided it into three equal parts then you would have three thirds. If you gave away one third then you would have two thirds left. You would write this, 2/3. You can divide something into any number of parts. For example you could cut a loaf of bread into 25 slices. If you ate 4 slices then you would have 21 slices left over which you would write as 21/25. You can use decimals to write the number of parts you have when you divide what you have into tens or hundreds or thousands. To get to know about this look up DECIMAL. See Appendix II.6 for information on algebraic fractions.
FRAME – (noun) 1. A frame is the basic structure for something that one is making. “The big box had a frame of strong wood along the edges. The frame was covered over with boards to complete the box. “See BOARD & BASI 2. Frame also means the border around something like a picture frame or a window frame.
FROM – (preposition) has quite a few meanings. 1. Out of: “The water came from the tap. The sound came from the loud speaker. ” 2. Out of the possession of: “She took the bone from the dog”. 3. Out of the position: “Take the pot from the stove. Take the book from the shelf. He ran from” “Cape Town to Simonstown.” “4.” Because of: “He died from hunger”.
FRONT – (noun) is the opposite of back. It is the side one usually sees when one faces something. “The front of the building faces the street. The front of the head is the face.
FRUSTUM – (noun) A frustum is a cone with the top cut off. See diagram 21.
FULCRUM – (noun) A fulcrum is a support or rest on which a lever rotates. See diagram 38.
FULL – (adjective) is the opposite of empty. When something is full it has no more space for anything else. “The bus was full so I had to walk. When the bucket was full of water it was heavy to carry.
FUNCTION – (noun) 1. Function means the normal work or activity. “The function of a manager is to see that everyone knows what to do and then that they do what they have to do. The function of the handle bars of a bicycle is to provide a way of steering the bicycle. ” 2. A function is also the name for a gathering of people like at a wedding or birthday party. “ 3.” In maths it means a mathematical expression whose value depends on the value of one – (or more) variable. See EXPRESSION. In the equation y = x&>2 &> + 3x + 5, x&>2 &> + 3x + 5 is called a function of x because its value depends on the value of x. For example if x =2 then y = 4 + 6 + 5 which equals 15, but if x = 3 then y = 9 + 9 + 5 which equals 23.
FUNDAMENTAL – (adjective) 1. Fundamental means the same as basic See BASI “If you don’t know the fundamental principles of arithmetic – (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) you will not be good at maths. 2. “As a noun it means those things that are basic “The fundamentals ““of arithmetic” “are addition, subtraction, multiplication & division.
FUTURE – (noun) 1. The future is the time that is still to come. “No one really knows what will happen in the future. She has made plans for the future. 2. “It can also be used as an adjective with the same meaning.” Her future plans are already made.