PAIR – (noun) A pair is the name for two things that go together. You speak about a pair of twins; a pair of shoes. In geometry you speak about a pair of sides. See Diagram 7.

PARABOLA – (noun) A parabola is the name of a special curve in maths. It is obtained by graphing an equation of the form y = ax&>2 &> + bx + If a <;> 0 then the legs will be pointing upwards and vice versa. If b&>2 &> – 4ac <;> 0 then the curve will intersect with the X axis and if b&>2 &> – 4ac << 0 then the curve will not intersect with the X axis. If b&>2 &> – 4ac = 0 then the turning point will touch the X axis. See GRAPH. See diagrams 26 & 27.

PARALLEL – (adjective) Two parallel lines stay the same distance apart however far you extend them. See EXTEND. See Diagram 6.

PARALLELOGRAM – (noun) A parallelogram is a 4 sided figure with 2 pairs of parallel sides. See Diagram 7.

PARENT – (noun) A parent is either a mother or father. “If you want to go on this outing you must get permission from one of your parents. Her parents have gone to Johannesburg.

PARTICIPLE – (noun) A participle is a form of a verb that can be used as an adjective. In “the running water,” ‘running’ is the present participle of the verb ‘to run’. It is used as an adjective because it describes the water. “The boy having run the long race felt tired.” ‘Having run’ is called the perfect participle. “Run races’ are not what he is thinking about; it is the races he still wants to win that he is worrying about.” ‘Run’ is the past participle.

PARTICLE – (noun) A particle is a very small piece of matter. See MATTER.” She got a particle of dirt in her eye. ” “An electron is one of the smallest particles of matter.

PARTICULAR – (adjective) 1. Particular means something by itself and apart from others. “That particular sum is very difficult.” – (The other sums may not be so difficult, but the one you are talking about is difficult). 2. Particular also means wanting every detail to be just as you wish it and therefore hard to please. See DETAIL.” S he is very particular about her clothes and finds shopping for clothes difficult.

PARTNERSHIP – (noun) A partnership is formed when two or more people agree to do something together. Marriage is a partnership of a man and a woman. People often form a business partnership. “John and James formed a partnership to run a building business.

PART OF SPEECH – (noun) A part of speech is one of the grammatical groups into which words are divided. The main ones are: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition & conjunction. See GRAMMAR.

PASSENGER – (noun) A passenger is a person who is travelling in a car, bus, train, taxi, boat, aeroplane or anything like these. In a bus there are the passengers, but also there are the driver and the ticket collector. See CONDUCTOR.

PASSIVE VERB – (noun) A passive verb is a verb where the subject has the action of the verb done to it. See ACTIVE VERB. “The ball is kicked by the boy.” Here ‘is kicked’ is a passive verb. “The boy kicks the ball.” Here ‘kicks’ is an active verb. The form ‘is kicked’ is called the passive voice.


PAST – (noun) 1. Past means what has already happened. History is about things which happened in the past. Yesterday is in the past, today is in the present and tomorrow is in the future. 2. A verb which is used about the past must be in the past – (adjective) tense. See TENSE. “Today I run”. ‘Run’ is in the present tense. “Tomorrow I will run.” ‘Will run’ is in the future tense. “Yesterday I ran. “ran’ is in the past tense.

PAUSE – (verb) 1. Pause means to stop doing something for a short time. “He was talking fast, almost without stopping, but he had to pause to take a breath. “ 2. A pause – (noun) is a short stopping of doing something.” ““After chopping a thick branch off the tree he had a pause from his work.

PENSION – (noun) A pension is an amount of money that is paid every month to someone who has reached the age when one stops working. This age is usually 65. To those, who have not paid into their own pension fund and also have not saved other money, t he state pay a pension. It is better to pay into a pension fund during the time of your life when you work because then you will have a better pension. The pension the state pays is very low.

PENTAGON – (noun) A pentagon is a five sided figure. See Diagram 9.

PER – (preposition) 1. Per means for each. “What is the cost of bread per loaf?” 2. It also means by means of. “I travelled per train; she travelled per boat.

PER ANNUM means over a period of one year. “He is getting 15% interest per annum on that money.

PER CENT means ‘out of every 100’. For example if you say 55 per cent of the school children are girls, it means that out of every 100 school children 55 are girls. The rule is that to work out a percentage you first work out the fraction and then you multiply that by 100. In this example the fraction that are girls is 55/100. The percentage that are girls is 55/100 x 100 = 55 per cent. So if you want to change percent back into a fraction you divide by 100. 55 percent divided by 100 is 55/100 . Another example: I have 500 balls. 200 are black. The rest are red. What is the percentage of red balls. Answer: The number of red balls is 500 – 200 = 300. The fraction of red balls is 300/500 = 3/5. The percentage of red balls is 3/5 x 100 = 300/5. 300/5 = 60. So 60 percent of the balls are red. A short way of writing this is 60%.

PERCENTAGE – (noun) is the number per 100 that you have got. In the above example you would say the percentage of balls that are red is 60.

PERFECT – (adjective) 1. Perfect means without any defect. “The teacher was very fussy and would only accept perfect work.” 2. It also means exact. “The photostat machine made a perfect copy.” 3. In grammar we speak of the Perfect Tense which is used when the action is complete at the time of speaking. There are 3 perfect tenses. “I have spoken” is in the Present Perfect; “I had spoken” is in the Past Perfect and “I will have spoken” is in the Future Perfect Tense of the verb ‘to speak’.

PERFECT SQUARE – (noun) A perfect square is the product of a whole number multiplied by itself. For example 8 x 8 = 64. 64 is a perfect square. The square root of a perfect square will be a whole number. For example 25 is a perfect square because its square root is 5 which is a whole number. 32 is not a perfect square because the square root of 32 is 5,656 which is not a whole number. See SQUARE ROOT.

PERIMETER – (noun) 1. The perimeter of something is the outside boundary.” There was a fence around the perimeter of the field. ” 2. It is also the distance around the outside edge of something. The perimeter of a rugby field is about 264 meter s. See Appendix II.12 for some formulae for perimeters.

PERIOD – (noun) 1. A period is a piece of time with a start and a finish. At this school the first period is from 8 am to 8-45 am. “I stayed in Johannesburg for a long period.” It would also be correct to say I lived in Johannesburg for a long period of time. 2. In punctuation period means a full stop or a point. A point is this mark in the brackets – (.). See BRACKETS & MARK.

PERMANENT – (adjective) means that it is going to last and is not just for a short time. It is the opposite of temporary. “Everyone would like to have a permanent job.” A permanent job is called permanent employment. “If you want a house to be permanent you should build it from bricks, not from wood and plastic

PERPENDICULAR – (adjective) means to be at right angles. See RIGHT ANGLES. See Diagram 5.

PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR – (noun) A perpendicular bisector is a line that crosses another line at its midpoint and at right angles. See BISECT. See diagram 1.

PERSUADE – (verb) means to talk to someone so as to get him to agree to something.” After a lot of talking I persuaded her to come to the party with me. She persuaded her mother to let her train to be a nurse.

PETTY CASH BOOK – (noun) 1. Petty means of little importance.” Don’t waste my time telling me about your petty problems. “2. When you run a business there are often small items needed. To pay for these, money called the Petty Cash is kept in a locked box. A book is kept to keep a record of Petty Cash Expenditure. This book is called the Petty Cash Book. See BOOK KEEPING.

PHRASE – (noun) A phrase is the name of a group of words that make sense, but do not include a subject and a verb. See SENTENCE. “A tall man’“is a phrase” . ‘Into the bath’“is also a phrase. “The tall man jumped into the bath’ ” is a sentence.

PHYSICAL – (adjective) 1. Physical means to do with the body. “The two twins had the same physical characteristics.” See CHARACTERISTI” We do exercises and play sport to get healthy physical development. “See DEVELOP. 2. The physical universe is all the things around us like the earth, the sky, the sea, the stars and so on.

PI – (noun) is the sound of the Greek letter <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>p<:f> – (Greek is the language spoken in the land called Greece). <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>p<:f> is the symbol used to represent the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle. No matter what is the size of a circle pi is always the same – (about 3,1412) See SYMBOL, RATIO, DIAMETER, CIRCUMFERENCE. If C is the circumference of a circle and D is the diameter then <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>p<:f> = C/D. The actual value of <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>p<:f> is about 3,14159 recurring. See IRRATIONAL NUMBER.

PILLAR – (noun) A pillar is like a pole, but usually thicker. A pillar is used instead of a wall to support a roof. “The house had a large front stoep and the roof over the stoep was supported on brick pillars.

PLACE – (noun) 1. Place means a position in space. He is sitting in my place. “They are living in a place south of the town. I have a sore place on my foot. He has no place to work. “2. Place can also mean a position in time. “ At what place in the graduation will we get our certificates? ” See GRADUATION & CERTIFICATE. 3. To place – (verb) means to put in a position in space. “He placed his hand on my shoulder. She placed the pot on the stove. ”

PLACE VALUE – (noun) In a number the place of each digit has a different value. The value of a place is called its place value. For example in the following number, 5428,34 the place value of the digit 8 is 1, the place value of the digit 2 is 10 an d of the digit 4 is 100 and of the digit 5 is 1000. The place value of the 3 is 1/10 and the place value of the 4 is 1/100. The place value of the first digit on the left of the decimal comma is always 1. See DIGIT, DECIMAL, PLACE & VALUE. See diagram 47.

PLANE – (adjective) 1. Plane means flat. “A good football field has a plane surface. When there is no wind the lake has a plane surface”. 2. In geometry a plane – (noun) means a flat surface. The rule is that a line joining any two points in a plane must be a straight line. 3. Plane also means a special tool for making the surface of a piece of wood flat. “The carpenter used a plane after he cut the wood with a saw.” 4. Plane is also a short word for aeroplane.

PLANET – (noun) A planet is a heavenly body like the earth or Mars or Venus that rotates around a sun. If a planet has another smaller body rotating around it then the smaller body is called a moon. It takes the earth about 365 days to rotate around t he sun. It takes our moon about 28 days to rotate around the earth. The planets of our sun include Mercury, Venus, the earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto. See diagram 42.

PLOT – (verb) 1. When you say you plot a graph it means that you put in some of the points and then draw the graph by joining the points. See diagram 19. 2. Plot also means to plan secretly to do something, usually bad. “The soldiers plotted to kill their captain. 3.” A plot – (noun) is also a piece of ground on which one can build a house.

PLUMB – (adjective) means standing straight up. See VERTICAL. When something like a wall that should be standing straight up and is not straight up then you say it is ‘out of plumb’ or ‘off plumb’. If it is straight up then you say it is plumb. See P LUMB LINE.

PLUMB LINE – (noun) A plumb line is a piece of thin string which has a ‘plumb bob’ at one end. The plumb bob is a small heavy weight. When the string is held so that the plumb bob hangs down the string will be vertical. See Diagram 37.

PLURAL – (noun) Plural has to do with more than one. It is the opposite of singular, which means to do with just one. Nouns usually have a different form for the singular and the plural. The following are the singular form followed by the plural. Boy, boys; man, men; car, cars; cup, cups; I, we; me, you; sky, skies; maiden, maidens – (a young unmarried girl) and so on. “I drink out of a cup. We drink out of the cups.

PLUS means add to or increase by. Examples: 1 plus 1 equals 2. 2 plus 3 plus 4 equals 9. These can be written for short as 1 + 1 = 2 and 2 + 3 + 4 = 9. You can also mix a plus and a minus. 2 + 3 – 4 = 1.

PLUS SIGN – (noun) The plus sign is + . See PLUS.

POINT – (noun) 1. Point means a small round dot like a period. In maths a point has position, but no size. “Draw a straight line from point A to point B”. 2. It also means a sharp end. “She pricked her finger with the point of the needle. “ 3. It also means to show something by directing something that is long and thin at the thing you want to show. “The teacher pointed to the letters on the chalkboard with a pencil. Point to the correct answer with your finger. ” 4. Point of view means a point from which to view. “ Each person has his own point” – (noun)” of view. From my point of view John looks smaller than Jim. “5. Point of view also means a way of thinking or feeling. “ She has a fixed point of view about boys; she does not like them at all.

POINT OF CONTACT – (noun) When a line touches a curve it only has one point of contact. See diagram 16A.

POINT OF INFLECTION – (noun) is the point where the curvature of a line changes from one way to the other. See diagram 30.

POINT OF CONCURRENCE – (noun) See diagram 30.

POINTS OF THE COMPASS – (noun) See diagram 39. The main points of the compass are North, South, East and West. The abbreviations for these are N, S, E & W. See ABBREVIATION. The next 4 points are North West, North East, South West and South East. The abbreviations for these are NW, NE, SW & SE. There are 16 points of the compass altogether. See COMPASS.

POLAR – (adjective) means to do with the poles of the earth. See POLE. “The weather is always very cold in the polar regions.” See REGION. See diagram 44.

POLAR CO-ORDINATES – (noun) The position of a point on a plane can be described either by rectangular co-ordinates or by polar co-ordinates. See RECTANGULAR CO-ORDINATES. Polar co-ordinates consist of an angle and a length. Rectangular co-ordinates consist of two lengths. See Diagrams 28 & 18.

POLE – (noun) 1. A pole is the name for a long thin piece of wood or iron. Poles are used to hang electrical wires and also for fencing. “The man used two poles and a piece of rope to make a line where his wife could hang the washing.” 2. Pole is also the name for the most northern and most southern points on the surface of the earth. The one is called the North Pole and the other is called the South Pole. See diagram 44.

POLICY – (noun) 1. Policy means a rule or a set of rules by which to manage something. “His business was successful because his first policy was to have satisfied customers. Honesty is the best policy in life. ” 2. Policy also has a special meaning in insurance. When one takes out some insurance and agrees to pay so much money a month to the insurance company then the full details of the agreement are written in a document called an Insurance Policy. See INSURANCE & DOCUMENT.

POLYGON – (noun) A polygon is a figure with 3 or more sides. See diagram 8.

POLYNOMIAL – (noun) means consisting of two or more terms. ac, bx, dx and 5pqr are monomial expressions. ab + cx, by + dx and px + c are binomial expressions. ab + bx + cy is a trinomial expression.

POLYNOMIAL EQUATION – (noun) A polynomial equation is an equation with two or more terms equated to zero. For example a – 4x + 3y + 2z -2 = 0 is a polynomial equation.

POPULAR – (adjective) means that it is liked by a lot of people. “Jeans are a popular kind of clothes. Because her songs are very popular she is selling a lot of records and making a lot of money.

POSITION – (noun) 1. Position means a place. “Please take up your positions in a row. She is very clever and she came in first position. Please sit because I prefer the standing position. “2. A position is also the name for a particular job. “ He got the position of headmaster. I would like to get that position because it is very interesting work.

POSITIVE – (adjective) 1. Positive means having a value greater than zero. 2. Positive is the opposite of negative. See NEGATIVE. +5 is a positive number. -7 is a negative number. It is not necessary to write the plus sign – (+) before a positive number. A number on its own is assumed to be positive. See ASSUME. For example plus 10 is written as 10, but minus 10 is written as -10. 3. Positive also means to be quite certain. “I am positive that is the man who took your money out of your pocket because he has exactly the same moustache.” 4. Positive also means looking on the good side of things. “Happy people are usually very positive about life and expect good things to happen to them.

POSSIBLE – (adjective) means that it can be. “It is possible to run a mile in under 4 minutes, but I don’t think you can do it. If possible I will come and see you tomorrow. ” Impossible is the opposite of possible. “ It is impossible to cut iron with a piece of wood.

POSTDATED CHEQUE – (noun) A postdated cheque is a cheque that has a date later than the date that you take it to the bank. For example if a cheque is dated 10 Jan and you take it to the bank on 1 Jan then it is post dated by 9 days. A bank usually will not pay money on a post-dated cheque. If the bank does agree to pay on a post-dated cheque then the bank makes a special charge. Predated is the opposite of post-dated. A stale cheque is a cheque that is predated by more than 6 months and a bank will not pay money on that cheque. For example if today is 1 Sept 1991 then a cheque dated earlier than 1 Mar 1991 will be stale.

POWER has several meanings. 1. For its meaning in maths see EXPONENT. 2. It means strength. “I did not have the power to lift the very heavy suitcase.” 3. It means ability to do or act. “A judge has the power to send a thief to prison. Parliament has the power to make laws”. 4. It has a special meaning in engineering. “The bigger motor has more power.” You will learn more about this in physics.

PRACTICE 1. To practice – (verb) means to do something over and over so as to get better and better at doing it. “If you want to be good at cricket you must practice every day. “ 2. Practice is also a noun. “His daily practice improved his ability as a cricketer.

PRECEDE – (verb) means to go before. “The letter ‘a’ precedes the letter ‘b’ in” “the alphabet. When they go into court the king precedes the queen. ”

PRECEDENCE – (noun) 1. Precedence means the act or right of going before. “The matric students take precedence over the other students so they will be able to sit in the best seat… “ 2. In maths one has The Rules of Precedence. These rules give the correct order that steps must be done in a calculation. They are as follows: First you work out the exponents, then multiplication and division, then addition and subtraction, but those things in brackets must be done first. See Appendix III.

PREDICATE – (noun) In grammar the predicate is the second part of a sentence after the subject. These are the words which say something about the subject. The man is tall. ‘The man’ is the subject and ‘is tall’ is the predicate. The car went at 120 kph. ‘The car’ is the subject and ‘went at 120 kph’ is the predicate. The boy hit the ball. ‘The boy’ is the subject and ‘hit the ball’ is the predicate. 

PREDICT – (verb) means to tell before what is going to happen later. “They did not predict the weather very well because they said it was going to rain today, but the sun has been shining all the time. She predicted that she would get over 80% for maths and she was quite right because she got 83%.

PREFIX – (noun) A prefix is a syllable or word joined onto the beginning of another word to change its meaning or form another word. ‘Un’ is a prefix meaning ‘the opposite of’. For example unlike means not like. Untie is the opposite of tie and so on. Here are some more prefixes. ‘Re’ meaning again.” Redo your work. ” ‘Pre’ means before. “ Prepare your lesson”. “ Small children go to preprimary school before they go to primary school.

PREMIUM – (noun) A premium is an amount of money paid to an insurance company for insurance. A premium can be a monthly premium or an annual premium. See INSURANCE.

PREPOSITION – (noun) A preposition is a word which expresses a relationship to another word. To, from, by, with, for, on, with, in are prepositions. “He went from home to school by bus with his sister. For this time he will ride on the back of the lorry instead of in the cab with the driver.

PRESENT – (noun) 1. Present means at this time. The past is what did happen before this time. The future is what will happen after this time. The present is right now. “The present is very interesting, but I wonder what will happen in the future.” 2. It also means at a place. “Only half the pupils were present in class today.” 3. A present is also something you give someone, usually on a special occasion like a birthday. “She was unhappy because he did not give her a present.” Present is spoken in two ways. Please ask your teacher about this. 4. When spoken another way present means to give – (verb). “The head master will present the certificates to those pupils who passed.” See CERTIFICATE. 5. It also means to place before. “The engineer presented his plans for a new bridge to the town council. “ See COUNCIL & TENSE.

PRESSURE – (noun) 1. When you use the word pressure you are giving the idea of a force of some sort acting upon something.” One can be under pressure because one has a great many things to do in a short time. The school children are under pressure at the end of the year to complete their studies before all the exams. The manager was under pressure to complete all the orders for goods before the end of the month. ” 2. When you use the word pressure in engineering then you are talking about an amount of force over a measured area. For example if you blow up a motor car’s tyres to 2 bars – (a bar is a force of 1 kilogram on each square centimetre) then you will have a force of 2 kg pressing outwards on each square centimetre of the tyre. It is this pressure that holds up the weight of the car. When the tyre is flat there is little or no air pressure in the tyre.

PREVIOUS – (adjective) 1. Previous means what happened earlier. “I had a previous arrangement so I could not go to the meeting. “ See ARRANGEMENT. 2. Previous to means before. “Previous to your asking me to have a meal with you I had already eaten.

PRICE – (noun) 1. Price means how much money a thing will sell for or how much it was bought for. “The price of the apples in this shop is 50 cents each, what price did you pay for the apples you bought?” 2. Price also means the value of something not expressed in money. “The price he had to pay for trying to save his sister from drowning was to lose his life.

PRIME – (adjective) means being first in importance. “A student’s prime purpose should be to understand his work so he can pass all his examinations and be able to do the things he has learned so he can get a good job.

PRIME BANK RATE – (noun) When a bank lends money it charges interest at an amount which is called the bank rate. The bank rate can vary from time to time from below 10% to above 20%. At any one time the lowest bank rate is called the Prime Rate because this is the rate that the bank charges its prime customers. See PRIME. Most people who borrow from a bank get charged prime plus 1 % or even more.

PRIME FACTOR – (noun) A prime factor must be a prime number. See PRIME NUMBER. 5 and 4 are factors of 20 because 5 x 4 = 20. 5 is a prime factor, but 4 is not because 4 = 2 x 2. The prime factors of 20 are 5 and 2. The prime factor of 30 are 2, 3 and 5. See if you can understand this. Otherwise ask your teacher to explain it.

PRIME NUMBER – (noun) A prime number is a number that can only be divided without a remainder by 1 and by itself. If you try to divide the following numbers by other smaller numbers you will find that there will always be a remainder; the only numbers that divide in to them without remainder are themselves or 1: 1, 3, 5 , 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41 and so on. See if you can find the next prime number above 41.

PRINCIPAL – (noun) 1. Principal is the name of the money that is lent to someone or invested in a business. One earns interest on one’s principal. See INVEST. 2. Principal is also the name given to someone in charge of something, especially the he ad master of a school.” The boy who would not listen to the teacher was sent to the principal. ” 3. It also means the main or most important. “ The principal” – (adjective) “reason I came was so that I could see you. The principal reason for doing well at school is so that you can get a good job. ” See PRINCIPLE.

PRINCIPLE – (noun) 1. Principal means the basic idea of something. “Arithmetic is based on the principle that one and one make two. A steam engine is based on the principle that when you heat water it becomes steam. “2. Principle also means a rule of right conduct. “ I trust him because he is a man with good principles. ” You must understand the difference between principle and principal. See PRINCIPAL.

PRISM – (noun) 1. A prism is a solid object that has 2 parallel sides that have the same shape and size. The other sides are either rectangles or parallelograms. 2. Prism is most often used to mean a transparent body of this form, usually made of glass, used for separating white light that passes through it into its spectrum. See SPECTRUM. See diagram 22 & 51.

PROBABLE – (adjective) 1. Probable means that something is likely to happen. See LIKELY. “In Cape Town it is very probable that the south east wind will blow at the beginning of summer.” 2. Probable also means likely to be true. “The very cold weather is the probable cause of your illness.

PROBABLY is the adverb of probable.” What will probably happen at the beginning of summer is that the south east wind will blow.

PROBLEM – (noun) 1. A problem is something which is difficult to do. Usually in a problem there is something that needs to be done, but there is something else which is stopping that thing being done. For example, you want to buy an ice cream, but you do not have the money. “So now you have a problem on how to get the money to buy the ice cream.” 12 boys want to get into the football team, but there are only 11 places. “The problem is how do all the 12 boys get into the team?” There does not seem to be an answer to this problem. 2. Problem has a special meaning in maths. In a maths problem you are given some information and a question asking for an answer. You are then expected to be able to take the information given and then using your knowledge of maths to work out the answer. For example: You have R6. How many ice creams costing R2 can you buy with your money. Using your knowledge of division you divide 2 into 6 and get the answer of 3. For example: You have 12 cakes. Divide these cakes between Joe and John so that Joe has twice as many cakes as John. The answer is: Joe gets 8 and John gets 4. – (If you do not understand how to do this speak to your teacher). TO BE ABLE TO ANSWER A MATHS PROBLEM PROPERLY YOU MUST BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION PROPERLY. ALWAYS DO YOUR BEST TO UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION BEFORE YOU START TO ANSWER IT. IF YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION THE FIRST THING TO DO IS TO LOOK FOR WORDS I N THE QUESTION WHICH YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND. FIRST GET A DICTIONARY AND LOOK UP ALL THE WORDS YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND PROPERLY AND THEN YOU WILL BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION.

PRODUCE – (verb) means to do something that will give a result. Here are some examples. “This factory produces motorcar tyres. This farm produces mealies. This mother rabbit will produce” “many baby rabbits. This man has produced a very good play. When the father came home after being away for one year he produced happiness in the family. ” See PRODUCT. Produce also has a special meaning in maths. It means the same as extend. See EXTEN D.

PRODUCT – (noun) 1. Product is the name you give to what is produced. See PRODUCE. “The product of this factory is motor car tyres.” However the general name for products from vegetable farms is ‘produce’. He bought his food at the produce market. 2. In maths a product is what you get when you multiply 2 numbers. “The product of 2 and 3 is 6.

PROFIT – (noun) 1. Profit means a gain or an advantage of some sort. “Arriving on time profited” “him nothing because she was an hour late. “ 2. In business it means the amount of money left over from the price you sell something after all the expenses have been subtracted. For example if you buy an apple for 35 cents and sell it for 50 cents you make 15 cents profit. If you can buy something for a small amount of money and sell it for a large amount you would expect to make a big profit. The opposite of profit is LOSS.

PROGRESS – (verb) 1. To progress means to move forward.” After a days fighting the army only progressed by 2 kilometres. ” 2. Progress can also be used as a noun. “ Today it went well with my studies and I made a lot of progress.

PROGRESSION – (noun) 1. Progression means an amount of progress. See PROGRESS. 2. In maths a progression is the same as a sequence or a series. See SEQUENCE & SERIES. See ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION & GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION.

PROJECT – (noun) A project is something that must be done to get a definite result. See DEFINITE. “The farmer has a project to drain the water from that land so he can plant wheat there. I have a geography project for this term.

PRONOUN – (noun) A pronoun is a word that stands for a noun and is used in place of a person because the person is already known. The following words are pronouns: I, he, she, it, we, you, they, them, us, who, whose, mine. If you write ‘Mary came. The n Mary sat down. Then Mary told me what had happened and how afraid Mary was.’ You can see that after the first ‘Mary’ you could rather use the pronoun ‘she’ in each case instead of Mary.

PRONOUNCE – (verb) To pronounce a word is to say it out aloud. “How do you pronounce this long word?”

PRONUNCIATION – (noun) means the way a word is said aloud. You will have to learn how to pronounce English as well as how to write it. “His pronunciation is good.

PROOF This is the noun of the verb ‘to prove’. It means the action of showing that something is correct or providing evidence that it is correct. See PROVE. “If you expect me to believe that give me some proof.

PROPERLY – (adverb) means in the way that is expected. “Do your sums properly in your exercise book and not on a loose piece of paper. The mother promised the children that if they behaved properly she would give them each an ice cream.

PROPER NOUN – (noun) is the name of a noun that is the name of a particular person, place or thing. these are proper nouns: “Mary, James, Johannesburg, Table Mountain.” You see that the first letter of a proper noun is always written as a capital.

PROPERTY – (noun) is the name given to either a piece of land or a building on a piece of land. “He not only owns his own business, but also owns the property where he runs his business. He owns all that property and plans to build houses on it.

PROPORTION – (noun) 1. First see RATIO. You usually say in maths that two things are in proportion. This means that their ratios are equal. If Mary is 0,5 metres tall and weighs 15 kilograms and if Peter is 1,0 metres tall and weighs 30 kilograms then you can see that the ratios are equal. – (15/0,5 = 30 and 30/1,0 = 30) Therefore you can say that Mary’s and Peter’s weights are in proportion to their heights. Here is another example: if you have 2 similar triangles then their respective sides will be in proportion – (or proportional) See diagram 13. See also Appendix II.14. 2. In ordinary use proportion means a relationship between two things. “How well you do in the exams will be in proportion to how hard you study. “ The relationship here is between study and exams. “His legs are very short; they are not in proportion to the rest of his body”. The relationship here is between his legs and the rest of his body.

PROPORTIONAL – (adjective) is the same as ‘in proportion’. See PROPORTION. “2 : 4 is proportional to 4 : 8. See diagram 13.

PROPRIETARY LIMITED COMPANY – (noun) The abbreviation for this is – (Pty) Ltd Co. When a person wants money to start a business he can start what is called a company and sell shares in that company. If he sells shares just to a few people who he knows t hen it is a – (Pty) Ltd Co. If he offers the shares to anyone who wants to buy them it is called a public company and the word proprietary is left out. Let us say he wants to start a company called the Cape Town Transport Company. If he sells shares just to a few people who he knows then the company would be called: The Cape Town Transport Company – (Pty) Ltd. If he sold shares to anyone who wanted to buy shares it would be called The Cape Town Transport Co Ltd. Look up the words SHARE & LIMITED. The word limited is used because if the company does not do well and has to close, then the amount of money the company has to pay out to the people it owes money is limited. See SHARES.

PROTEST 1. Protest – (verb) means to do something to show that you do not agree with something. “When the referee gave the free kick the players crowded around him to protest. The children protested to the teacher about the very difficult exam questions. “2. Protest can also be used as a noun. “ He made a protest to the headmaster about the low marks the teacher gave him.

PROTON – (noun) A proton is a particle found in the nucleus of atoms. It has one unit of positive charge. It has a weight of 1836 electrons. See diagram 38.

PROTRACTOR – (noun) A protractor is a used for measuring angles. See diagram 38.

PROVE – (verb) 1. Prove means to show that something is correct. “For example the boy proved to his father that he did his homework properly by being able to answer all the questions on his homework correctly.” 2. In algebra when you are asked to prove something you usually are given two statements which are supposed to be equal. See STATEMENT. In your proof – (‘proof’ is the noun of the verb ‘to prove’) you will be expected to show that the two statements are equal. For example to prove that – (a + b)(a – b) = – (a&>2 – &>b&>2 &>) you will be expected to show that the left hand side – (LHS) and the right hand side – (RHS) are the same. This is one of the standard proofs which you are expected to know and you will find it in Appendix II – 5.

PROVIDE – (verb) means to supply what is needed. “The farmers provide food for the nation. A father must provide for his family.

PROVISION – (noun) A provision is what is provided or what needs to be provided. “She did not make provision for the journey so we will have nothing to eat till we arrive. The provision for the telephone bill was not enough. “See BILL.

PROVISIONAL – (adjective) means for the time being; not permanent.” When he wrote his exam he got a provisional certificate. After he has worked for six months to show that he really understands and can do the work properly he will get a permanent certificate. ” See CERTIFICATE .

PROVISIONS – (noun) This is the plural of provision. Usually when you use the word provisions you are talking about food. “When she got her pay she went to the shop and bought the week’s provisions.

PUNCTUATION – (noun) is the name given to the marks that are used in written language. These marks help to make the meaning clear. In spoken language one uses pauses and emphasis to make the meaning clear. See EMPHASIS & PAUSE. A full stop – (.) is used at the end of each sentence. A full stop is also called a period. A comma – (,) is used mainly to show interruptions in thought. See COMMA. A colon – ( : ) is used when you want to follow with a series of items. See COLON. A semi-colon is used when it is needed to show a separation not as definite as a full stop, but more definite than a comma. Quotation marks – (” ……. “) are used to show that you are writing the actual words spoken by someone. See example below. Brackets – ( ) are used to group some information together which is not part of what you are saying, but in addition to what you are saying. An exclamation mark – ( ! ) is used after an exclamation. See EXCLAMATION. A question mark – ( ? ) is used after a question. It is used in place of a period. Apo strophe – ( ‘ ) is used to show something belongs to someone without using the word of. See APOSTROPHE. The following is an example of the use of punctuation: ““Sorry!”, she said as she came in. “What would you like me to do?” The teacher said that she wanted her to do the following: Sweep out the classroom, dust the desks and polish the teacher’s table; also the teacher gave her extra homework to do. “Quotation marks are also called Inverted Commas because they are two commas that are upside down. Inverted means turned upside down. – (Notice in the above example that there are no inverted commas for what the teacher said because you are not using the actual words of the teacher).

PURCHASES – (noun) Purchases are things that have been bought. “My purchases consisted of bread, meat, milk, 2 shirts and a pair of trousers.

PYRAMID – (noun) The pyramid that one usually talks about is a square pyramid which has a square base. See BASE. A pyramid has triangular sides which meet at a point. See diagram 21.

PYTHAGORAS – (proper noun) is the name of the Greek mathematician who worked out the theorem which proves that in a right triangle the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. See diagram 28.