SALES LEDGER – (noun) See BOOKKEEPING.

SATISFACTORY – (adjective) is the condition of having satisfied. “Because he could not give satisfactory answers to the questions he failed his test. “ The opposite of satisfactory is unsatisfactory.

SATISFY – (verb) 1. Satisfy means to give enough of something to someone to take away their need or want. For example: “she had enough food to satisfy her hunger and he had enough water to satisfy his thirst. “ 2. It also means to fully meet a demand. For example:” his answer did satisfy the teacher because it showed that he understood the question;” “when he made the last payment on the clothes the shopkeeper was satisfied although he had to wait a long time for all his money.

SCALE – (noun) 1. A scale is something that you weigh things on. See diagram 52. “When I stood on the scale I saw that my weight was 60 kgs.” 2. A scale is also a straight piece of wood with markings on it. The markings can be 1 millimetre apart or 1 centimetre apart or on a long scale even 1 meter apart. See APART. A scale can be used for measuring things and for drawing straight lines. The markings on the scale are called graduations. 3. Any set of graduations that represent some quantity can be called a scale. We have been talking about a scale of measurement, but you can have other scales like a scale of temperature like you would have on a thermometer. Each graduation mark on a thermometer is usually 1 degree apart. See DEGREE.

Scale also has another meaning to do with maps. If the scale on a map is 1 in a million, then the distance of 1 mm on the map would represent a million mm on the ground or 1 Km – (there are 1 000 000mm in 1 Km). So if 2 towns on a map, with the scale of 1 in a million, are 95 mm apart then the true distance they are apart will be 95 Km.

SCALENE – (adjective) A scalene triangle is a triangle all of whose sides have different lengths. See diagram 9.

SCENE – (noun) 1. A scene is what you see when you look out in front of you. “The scene from the top of the mountain was beautiful.” 2. A play is divided up into parts. “Each part is called a scene.

SECANT – (noun) 1. In geometry a secant is a line intersecting a circle. See INTERSECT. See diagram 16. 2. In trigonometry secant has another meaning. See Diagrams 20 & 25.

SECOND – (noun) 1. Second means the one after the first. First means number one in time or position. “I came first and eh came second. “ 2. Second is also a short measure of time. “Please wait because I will be ready in a second.” There are 60 seconds in a minute of time. There are also 60 seconds in a minute of an angle. See MINUTE. The abbreviation for seconds is”. There are 60″ in one minute.

SECRET – (noun) A secret is some information that is known to a few people and kept from other people. “The time and place for the meeting is a secret. I keep my money in a secret hiding place. I do not trust him because he cannot keep a secret.

SECRETARY – (noun) A secretary is someone who helps someone in an office. A secretary usually works for one manager who she calls her ‘boss’. The sort of things that a secretary does are as follows: answer the telephone and take messages, take down letters and type them, open the incoming correspondence – (See CORRESPONDENCE), make appointments for her boss and see that he remembers to keep them – (See APPOINTMENT), file all the correspondence – (See FILE), keep records of petty cash expenditure. See PETTY CA SH.

SECTION – (noun) 1. A section means a part of something. If you say you cut something into sections it is the same as saying you cut it into pieces. “He cut the pencil into 3 sections and I took the largest one. “ 2. You can also talk about a section of something without it being cut or separated. For example: “Which section of the country do you come from; I have read the first section of the book. “ 3. When you make a drawing of something that has been cut the drawing is called a section or a cross section. See diagram 23.

SECTOR – (noun) A sector is that part of the area of a circle that is bounded by two radii – (radii is the plural of radius) and one of the two arcs of the circle joining the end points of the radii. See diagram 16.

SEDIMENT – (noun) is fine mud that has settled out of muddy water. One finds sediment at the bottom of a lake or dam or in a river at places where the water is not flowing fast. Fine mud will settle out of water when it is not flowing or only flowing very slowly.

SEGMENT – (noun) A segment of a circle is that part of a circle that is cut off by a line crossing the circle. See diagram 16.

SEMI means half. It is usually used as a prefix and is usually joined to the main word with a hyphen. See PREFIX & HYPHEN. For example “ semi-darkness is when it is not completely dark, but the sun has gone down and it is beginning to get difficult to see things clearly” .

SEMI-CIRCLE – (noun) A semicircle is half of a circle. See diagram 16.

SEMI-COLON A semi-colon is a punctuation mark as shown here between the brackets – ( ; ). It is used to show a separation more than that of a comma, but less than that of a full stop – (period).

See PUNCTUATION.

SENIOR – (adjective) 1. Senior means higher in rank. See RANK. “A major is senior to a captain”. See MAJOR. “He gets his instructions from his senior – (noun).” 2. It also means an older person. “He is my senior by 3 years.” 3. It also means having had the job longer or having been there longer. “Only the seniors got a pay rise.” 4. The matric students are sometimes called the seniors.

SENSE – (noun) 1. Sense means something similar to reason. See REASON. If something makes sense then it means it is something that you can understand. ‘I read the book’ makes sense. ‘The I book read’ is something that you cannot understand so it doe s not make sense. We call it nonsense. 2. Common sense is the name we give to those things that a person with reason will know and understand. It is common sense that to live one must have air, food and water. 3. To sense – (verb) something means to become aware of it. “Although he did not show it I sensed that he was afraid. “ 4. As a noun sense means the ability to become aware of. “She likes beautiful things and she has a good sense of beauty”. We talk about our sense of smell, our sense of touch, of sight, of hearing and taste. These are called the five senses.

SENSIBLE is the adjective from SENSE. ““1. Sensible means that which makes sense.” He suggested we go to the seaside today. That is a sensible suggestion because it is a holiday and the sun is shining. For someone who lived in Johannesburg and only had one day’s holiday that would not be a sensible suggestion. ” 2. Sensible also means having sound judgement.” He is a sensible person and always thinks things out well before doing anything. “3. It also means to be aware of”. She was sensible of his feelings toward her.

SENTENCE – (noun) A sentence is a group of words that together are complete. A sentence must have a verb in it, it usually has a subject and often has an object. ‘Go away’ is an example of a sentence without a subject. ‘I sing’ is an example of a sentence with a subject and a verb but no object. I sing a song’ is a sentence with a subject and a verb and an object. ‘The rain in winter’ is not a sentence because it has no verb. ‘Many times a day’ is not a sentence because it has no verb. See SUBJECT, OBJE CT, PHRASE & VERB.

SEPARATE – (verb) 1. Separate means to move two or more things that are together away from each other. “The sweets were all stuck together so I had to separate them before we could eat them.” 2. You can also say that two people lived in the same house for years and then they separated. This means that one or the other left and they no longer lived together. 3. Separate can also be used as an adjective. “They sat in separate seats. The separate parts of a bicycle are the wheels, the handle bars, the frame, the seat, the pedals and the chain.

SEQUENCE – (noun) 1. Sequence comes from a word in the Latin language which means to follow. Sequence has several meanings. Firstly it means a special order. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 are the first 5 numbers in sequence. In 1, 2, 5, 3, 4 you would say the number 5 is out of sequence. These letters are in alphabetical sequence: j, k, l, m, n, o. 2. It also means something that follows as a result of something else. “The sequence of his clever play is that he has been chosen for the first team. “ 3. In maths sequence has the same meaning as progression. See SERIES.

SERIES – (noun) 1. A series is a number of similar things in a row.” There were a series of oak trees alongside the road. He has been unlucky because he has had a series of accidents over the last 3 days. ” 2. In maths a series is the sum of a number of terms in a row. A number of terms in a row is called a sequence or a progression. See TERM, ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION & SEQUENCE.

SERIOUS – (adjective) 1. Serious means that something is important. This is a serious matter because if we don’t be careful someone may be badly hurt. 2. Serious also means not joking or pretending. “You are not serious about leaving your job because what will you do without your weekly pay? I thought he was not serious about my car being bumped, but when I saw it I saw the bump I knew he was not joking. He is a very serious person and never smiles or makes a joke.

SERVICE – (noun) 1. A service is something that you do to help someone else.” He did the old lady a kind service by giving her a lift in his car to the shop. The service at this shop is very slow and one has to wait a long time to be served. ” 2. As a verb service means to do a service. “ After every 10,000 km he serviced his car. ” This means he changed the oil and checked the brakes, steering spark plugs and things like that.

SET – (noun) 1. A set means a group of things collected together. A person who works on a motor car needs a set of tools. A student needs a set of books. 2. In maths a set is usually put between these sort of brackets { and }. 3, 5, 7 & 9 are called the elements of the set {3; 5; 7; 9} A set can also be written with a comma in between each element: {3, 5, 7, 9}. This is a set containing letters: {B; K; L; R}. The elements of a set can be made up of any sort of thing or mixture of things. You could have a set with dolls in it, or a set with toys in it or animals or a mixture of dolls, toys and animals or anything you can think of. An empty set is a set with no elements in it. See diagram 36. Set also has a lot of other meanings. 3. For example: a set in tennis and a radio set. “He won his set of tennis and then he listened to his radio set”. As a verb it means: 4. To place things in the correct place. “Please set the knives and forks on the table. When he broke his leg he was taken to the hospital to have the bone set. ” 5. To arrange. “ Please set a date for the football match. He set a time for the appointment. “6. To adjust correctly. “ Please set the clock”. 7. To put. “He set the glass on the table.” 8. To cause to be. “To set a prisoner free. “ 9. To fix the price of. “He set the selling price too high and nobody would buy his house. “ 10. To become firm or hard. “Ice cream will only set if it is kept very cold. It takes about a day for cement to set, but it will only be strong after about a week. ” 11. To encourage to attack. “ He set the dogs on the thieves.” 12. To go down. “The sun sets in the West. “

SEVERAL – (adjective) means more than one or two, but not a great many. If you say several people came to the meeting you mean about 3 or 4 or maybe even 6 people came, but definitely not 20 or 30. “He has several very good friends and many acquaintances”. See ACQUAINTANCE.

SEX – (noun) The sex of someone or an animal will be male or female. She is female and he is male. Mare is the name of a female horse and stallion the name of a male horse. ‘Man’ is male and ‘woman’ is female. The sex of things is neuter. For example a knife or a chair is neuter.

SHALL – (auxiliary verb) is used with other verbs for the future tense and also to express determination. I shall go means that I am definitely intending to go. See your grammar book for the rules to tell whether ‘shall’ means determination or just future and also for when you use ‘shall’ for future instead of ‘will’.

SHAPE – (noun) 1. Shape means the way the outside of something looks. “ A ball has a round shape. She thought she saw the shape of a man at the window. He drew the shape of a motorcar on the paper. ” 2. As a verb it means to give a definite form or character to. “ He will shape the clay into a dog. School will shape your future. ” See FORM definition 5.

SHARE – (noun) 1. Share means a part of something that is yours. “I asked for my share of the cake. There were five of us and we each had an equal share of the R5 so we each got R1. “2. Share can also be used as a verb.” You must share the food equally. See SHARES.

SHARES – (noun) One way of starting a business is to issue shares. Let us say you issued 100 shares and sell them for R10 each. This will bring in R1000. Each person who has bought 1 share will now own 1/100 of the business. If someone bought 50 shares he would own half of the business. See PROPRIETARY LIMITED COMPANY.

SHIFT – (verb) 1. Shift means to move. “Please shift the chair to this side of the table.” 2. When you divide by 10 you shift the decimal one place to the left. See MOVE. 3. Shift – (noun) also means a period when people work. I “work on the day shift, but he works on the night shift.

SHORT DIVISION – (noun) is the name of division when you are dividing by a number that is 12 or less. See LONG DIVISION.

SHOULD – (auxiliary verb) is used to express obligation. See OBLIGATION. You should do that means that you ought to do that. “You should help your old father because it is your duty.

SIDE – (noun) 1. A side means the line on the edge of something. A triangle has 3 sides and a square has 4 sides. 2. It also means the surface on the edge of an object. A cube has 6 sides. A pyramid with a square base has 5 sides. 3. It also means o ne of the two surfaces of an object that is not the front or the back. A person’s body has a front, a back, a left hand side and a right hand side. A box has a top, a bottom, a front, a back and two sides. See diagram 21. A sheet of paper has two sides only y. 4. In a game where there are two teams playing against each other each team is called a side. “If that big boy plays on our side we will surely win.

SIGN – (noun) 1. A sign is the same as a symbol. See SYMBOL. “The sign + means to add.” 2. The symbols on the sides of the roads to tell car drivers what to do are called traffic signs. 3. You can tell someone something by making a sign. For example you could agree before that when you were at the meeting if you raised your left hand you would both get up and leave. The raising of your left hand would be called making a sign. A sign could just be a nod of the head. 4. You also talk about signing your name. This means writing your name and initials in your own n handwriting. This is called a signature. A person’s signature should look the same each time he signs. A person usually writes his name in a special way for his signature. In life a person is asked to sign his name many times. For example if someone sends you some money to the post office you must sign for it before they will give it to you. A cheque is not valid without a signature. See CHEQUE & VALID.

SIGNATURE – (noun) is a signing of one’s name. See SIGN.

SIGNIFICANT DIGITS – (noun) In a decimal number the significant digits are the digits that affect the size of the number – (Significant means to have meaning). In the number 356, 89 all five numbers affect the size of the number so it has 5 significant d digits. In the number 0,763 there are only 3 significant digits

SIMILAR – (adjective) 1. Similar means much the same.” We like similar things so we get on well together. Cats are similar to tigers, but much smaller”. 2. In geometry two figures are similar if they have the same shape, but not the same size. See diagram 13. If two figures are the same shape and the same size they are called congruent.

SIMILARITY – (noun) means the state of being similar, See STATE & SIMILAR.

“The similarity between the two twins is obvious.

SIMILARLY – (adverb) means in a similar manner. See SIMILAR. “John is tall and good at football. Jim is not so tall, but is similarly good at football.

SIMPLE – (adjective) means not complicated. See COMPLICATED. “In Standard 1 they only teach simple arithmetic

SIMPLE INTEREST – (noun) See INVEST. Simple interest is not added to the capital, but is paid out when due. Compound interest is added to the capital and then also earns interest. See COMPOUND INTEREST.

SIMPLIFICATION – (noun) means the action of making simpler.

SIMPLIFY – (verb) 1. Simplify means to make simpler.” He simplified what he wanted to say by only using 50 words instead of 20 pages. “2. It also has a special meaning in maths. It also means to make simpler, but you have to learn the ways that are used in maths to do this. Here is an example. Simplify 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/6. You do this by making the denominator of all three fractions t o be 6 and then collecting the terms. See DENOMINATOR. It then becomes 3/6 + 2/6 + 1/6 which equals 6/6 which equals 1. You will find another example of simplification at the word COLLECT.

SIMULTANEOUS – (adjective) 1. Simultaneous means happening at the same time. “Their simultaneous arrival at the road crossing nearly caused them to bump into one another”. 2. In algebra Simultaneous Equations are two or more equations which have to be worked with together to find the answers to the unknowns. See UNKNOWN. The rule is that you need two equations if there are two unknowns; three equations if there are three unknowns and so on. You will learn in maths class how to work out the values of the unknowns with simultaneous equations. Here is an example of solving two simultaneous equations with two unknowns: 6x + 8y = 36 & 3x = 2y. x and y are the unknowns. From the second equation you can see that 6x = 4y. Now substitute 4y for 6x in the first equation and you get 4y + 8y = 36 or 12y = 36. So y = 3. If you substitute 3 for y in either of the two equations you will get x = 2. For another example see Appendix II.8

SINE – (noun) See diagram 20 & 24.

SINE WAVE – (noun) A sine wave is the graph you get by plotting the value of the sine of an angle against the angle. See diagram 24. See AMPLITUDE & PLOT.

SINGLE – (adjective) means one on its own, not with something else. A single person is an unmarried person. A single bed is for one person. If you say that you did not see a single thing it means that you did not see anything.

SINGULAR – (adjective) means to do with one. It is the opposite of plural which means to do with more than one. “Car’ is singular and ‘cars’ is plural.

SITE – (noun) 1. A site is a place or position. It is very often used when talking about buildings.” His house is on one of the best sites in the city. The site of the bridge is 10 Km from the river mouth. “2. Site can also be used as a verb.” Where are you going to site the new supermarket? ” 3. SITE also stands for Standard Income Tax on employees.

SKEW – (adjective) means standing at a slant. In geometry one talks about a skew cylinder or a skew cone. See diagram 21.

SLANT – (noun) If something is standing at a slant then it is not standing vertical. See VERTICAL. If you say a floor is at a slant then you mean it is not horizontal. See HORIZONTAL.

SOCIALISM – (noun) means a system of organising a society where the method of production and distribution of goods and food is owned by the government or the people themselves. See COMMUNISM.

SOLID – (adjective) 1. Solid means that something has fixed shape. A liquid or a gas is not solid because they change their shape to suit the container they are in. See CONTAINER. 2. When you cool down water to freezing point it becomes ice which is solid. 3. Solid also means the opposite of hollow. See HOLLOW. “This ball is light because it is not solid.” An empty box is not solid because it is hollow inside. 4. Things like wood, bricks, steel, concrete and stone are called solids – (noun).

SOLUTION – (noun) 1. A solution is answers to a problem which will make the problem go away. “The solution of the problem of how he would get to Cape Town was borrowing my car.” 2. A solution also means what you get when you put something like salt or sugar into water and stir it up. If you do not put too much in it all disappears into the water. You can no longer see the sugar or the salt, but you know it is in the water because you can taste it.

SOLVE – (verb) 1. To solve a problem means that you have found a solution which makes the problem go away. “When he found the money it solved the problem of how he could get home by bus. “ 2. To solve a maths problem means to work out the correct answer. “It took me an hour to solve this difficulty” “maths problem.

SOUTH – (noun) South is the name for a direction. It is the opposite of North. In South Africa – (South Africa is in the Southern hemisphere) if you stand facing the sun at 12 o’clock in the middle of the day South will be straight behind you. See NOON. See diagram 39.

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE – (noun) The southern hemisphere is the bottom half of the globe. See diagram 44. See GLOBE.

SOUTH POLE – (noun) The South Pole is the southern end of the earth’s axis. See diagram 44.

SPACE – (noun) 1. Space is what is around us. It has height and depth; it goes from one side to the other; it goes ahead and behind. If you look at the sky at night you see all the stars in space. 2. Space also means a place to be in. There is space f or 4 people in that room. See DIMENSION. See diagram 11.

SPECIAL – (adjective) 1. Special means something that makes something else different or more important or valuable. “These sweets are very nice because they have a special taste. We have known each other for many years and she is my special friend. ” 2. Special trains are extra trains that would not normally be running. “ When there is a big soccer match they have 50 special buses.

SPECIFIC – (adjective) means giving all the details exactly. Something which is not specific could be anything like it. But if it is specific it is a known and exactly described thing. “When she went travelling” “she did not have a specific plan and each day she went just where she felt like. I gave him specific instructions of exactly what he should do, so he was able to put everything right.

SPECTRUM – (noun) 1. The band of colours formed when a beam of white light is passed through a prism. A rainbow has all the colours of the spectrum: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. See diagram 51. 2. Spectrum can also mean the range or scope of something. “The spectrum of his knowledge is great.

SPHERE is another name for a round object like a ball. The shape of earth is a sphere. See diagram 44.

SPRING – (verb 1. Spring means to jump. “I will spring over the wall. When the headmaster arrived the children sprung to attention. “2. Spring up also means to come from some source.” A wind sprung up. “3.” “Spring up also means to appear. “ Towns spring up where gold is discovered. ” 4. Spring also means to produce suddenly. “ He sprung a surprise on her. ” 5. Spring also means to move back by elastic force. “ When he pulled the branch and let it go it sprung back suddenly. ” 6. .Spring as a noun means the metal coils or leaves that are between the wheels and the body of a car to soften the bumps. “ They had to stop their journey because of a broken spring.” 7. It also means a jump. “With a big spring the cat jumped over the fence.” 8. Spring also means a small stream of water flowing naturally from the earth. “When they reached the spring they had a long drink of water.” 9. It also means the season of the year when plants begin to grow. In the southern hemisphere – (hemi means half and sphere is a name used for the earth – see SPHERE) spring is in the months of September, October and November.

SQUARE – (noun) 1. A square is the name of a 4 sided figure with equal sides all at right angles to the next side. See diagram 7. See RIGHT ANGLE. 2. Anything shaped like a square can be called a square. As the open space in a town is often in the shape of a square we talk about the town square. 3. The area of a square is its length multiplied by its breadth, but as the length and breadth of a square are the same its area will be length multiplied by length. If l represents the length then the area is l&>2 &>. 1&>2 &> = l. 1&>2 &> is spoken as l squared. The square of a number is the result you get when you multiply the number by itself. The square of two is four; the square of three is nine; the square of four is sixteen and so o n. These are written 2&>2 &> = 4; 3&>2 &> =9; 4&>2 &> =16. For the Difference of 2 Squares see Appendix II.5. 4. Also if two people in a competition have the same score we say they are all square. When you are building something like a house you use the word square to mean properly upright and with square corners. You could see they were not good builders because none of the walls were square.

SQUARE MEASURE – (noun) When one measures the area of something one expresses the answer in square units. The area of a square of side 1 centimetre is 1 square centimetre. The area of a square of side 3 centimetres is 9 square centimetres. The area of a room that measures 3 meters by 4 meters is 12 square meters.

SQUARE ROOT – (noun) This is the opposite of square. If the square of 2 is 4, then the square root of 4 is 2. The square root of a number is that number which when multiplied by itself will give you the first number. You write this <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>!<:f>4 = 2 or <:f240,QLetter Gothic – (Math8),0,0,0>!<:f>9 = 3.

STANDARD – (noun) 1. Standard is a level of quality for a purpose. See QUALITY. “This team sets a high standard for their players so they win most of their matches. 2. “A standard is a level at school. “ I am in standard 5. “3. A standard can be set for a particular purpose. For example there are standard sizes of wood for building houses. 4. A standard is also the name for an upright pole. “The roof was resting on 12 standards.”

STAND FOR – (verb) To stand for means to represent or to be a symbol for. See REPRESENT. “Red stands for danger. What does that sign stand for?

STATE – (noun) 1. State means a condition that something is in. See CONDITION. “Before the long journey we were all in an excited state. After the heavy rains the fields were in a wet state. ” 2. State is also a name for the government of a country. “ The state decides what will be the taxes”. 3. The verb to state means to say. “Please state what you want and then go.

STATEMENT – (noun) 1. Statement means something that is said or written down. “After the car accident the driver was asked to make a statement of what happened.” 2. A statement also means a written record of financial transactions. “Once a month the bank will send you a statement. When she saw her statement from the clothes shop she did not believe she owed so much money. ” See TRANSACTION.

STOCK – (noun) 1. Stock is a supply of things for sale. “Because of the Xmas rush the shop ran out of stock. “ 2. Stock is also a supply of things for use. “In the north of Canada where the winter is very cold they have to build up a big stock of food and wood to last them through the winter.

STOCKS & SHARES – (nouns) In South Africa a stock is the same as a share. See SHARE. “You can buy shares on the stock market.

STOP ORDER – (noun) A stop order is a written instruction to a bank to debit an account with a certain amount of money on a certain date and pay it into another account. See CERTAIN. This method is usually used for paying monthly accounts like rent or bond charges where the amount is the same every month. A stop order would have the following information on it: The name and number of the account to be debited, the name and number of the account to be credited, the amount of money and the date on which it is to be done.

STRAIGHT – (adjective) means directly from one point to another without any curves. See LINE. It also means direct. See DIRECT. See diagram 4.

STRAIGHT EDGE – (noun) A straight edge is a long straight piece of material that can be used for drawing straight lines. “As he did not have a straight edge he had difficulty drawing straight lines.” A scale is often used as a straight edge.

STREAM – (noun) is the name given to something that is flowing. See FLOW. You can have a stream of water, a stream of air, a stream of traffic, a stream of people walking along the pavement and so on.

STRIKE – (verb) 1. Strike means to hit. “When I strike the big bell its sound will be heard all over the town.” – (Past tense is struck) “ He struck the ball so hard that it went right over the building into the street. “ 2. When you say a clock strikes it means that the hammer inside the clock is hitting the bell of the clock and making a sound. If you say the clock struck four then you mean that the hammer hit the bell four times to tell everyone that it is four o’clock. 3. Strike – (noun) has another meaning to do with workers. When the workers of a company have a strike or go on strike it means that they do not go to work to put pressure on management to do something that the workers are asking for, like a pay rise. “The workmen will” “strike” – (verb)” today.

STRUCTURE – (noun) 1. Structure means something that has been built like a building. “That structure on the corner will be the new shopping centre. “ 2. Structure also means anything that is built of parts. “A motor car is quite a complicated structure.

STUB – (noun) 1. A stub is something that is left over from a bigger thing. The stub of a cigarette is the small piece that you don’t smoke that you throw away. The stub of a cheque is the small piece of paper left in the cheque book after you tear the cheque out. See CHEQUE. 2. Stub can also be used as a verb when it means to bump against something. It is most often used in this way:” he stubbed his toe against the step.

SUBJECT – (noun) 1. Subject means a complete section of what a student studies. “Her 5 subjects are Xhosa, English, Maths, Science and Geography.” 2. Subject also means a person who is under the control of someone else like a king or a chief. “The good king’s subjects were all very loyal.” See LOYAL. 3. In grammar the subject of a sentence is the part of the sentence which performs the action of the verb. In the following sentences the underlined words are the subjects. The boy kicked the cat. The strong man lifted the heavy bag easily. When a verb is passive – (See ACTIVE & PASSIVE) the subject receives the action of the verb. The cat was kicked by the boy. The bag was lifted by the man. 4. Subject can also be used as a verb. It means to cause to experience something. “The king will subject, the soldiers that disobey, to a heavy punishment.

SUBJECTIVE – (adjective) means to do with one’s inner thoughts or experience. It is the opposite of OBJECTIVE which means to do with the things in the world around us. “He never understood her subjective world although he was always sharing her objective possessions.” This means that although they shared things like a house and furniture and books he never really understood her thoughts and feelings and what was going on in her mind.

SUBJECTIVE REALITY – (noun) When one realizes something one has a subjective experience and gets a subjective reality about something. When one experiences something in the world around us one gets an objective reality.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD – (noun) A verb that talks about a possible thing is in the subjunctive mood. If I were you I would not go. ‘Were’ is in the subjunctive mood. If this should be so then your father will be very angry. Here ‘should be’ is in the subjunctive mood. See MOOD.

SUBMIT – (verb) 1. Submit means to give in to the power or authority of another. “When the policeman caught him with the stolen goods the thief submitted himself to arrest”. 2. Submit also means to give to someone for their opinion or ruling. “The secretary submitted his plan to the committee for its approval.

SUBTEND – (verb) in geometry means to stand opposite. See diagram 16A.

SUBTRACT – (verb) means to take one number away from another number. For example if you take 4 away from 5 you are left with 1. When you say 6 minus 2 it is the same as saying subtract 2 from 6. In both cases the answer is 4. The short way of writing g this is 6 – 2 = 4. – is called the minus sign.

SUBTRACTION – (noun) is the action of taking something away from something else. “It is one of the four basic operations in arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication & division. He could do addition easily, but he found subtraction more difficult. ” For subtraction in algebra see Appendix II.1.

SUCCESSION – (noun) 1. Succession means the coming of one person or thing after another. “They took their turns to play on the swing in succession” “.” “The secretary dealt with all the items of business in succession. “ 2. Succession also means the right of the king’s eldest son to become the next king when the king dies. “Prince John will become the new king when his father dies by right of succession.

SUCH – (adjective) 1. Such means of that kind or of the same kind. “She has read all the detective stories of this writer and many other such books. You should not listen to such stories, they are all rumours. ” See RUMOUR. 2. ‘Such as’ means ‘like’. “He has been to many cities such as Johannesburg, Durban, Cape Town, New York and Rome”. 3. ‘Such a’ means so great. “She is such a nice person. He is such a stupid fool.

SUFFIX – (noun) A suffix is a letter or a short group of letters which is added at the end of another word to change it in some way. Adding ‘ly’ to quick changes it from an adjective to an adverb. “The quick runner won the race. He runs quickly. ” The suffix’s’ is often used to form a plural. “ A cat, but 20 cats. ” The suffix ‘ment’ is often used to turn a verb into a noun. “ He manages his business well so his management is good. ” There are many different suffixes in the English language. See your grammar book.

SUGGEST – (verb) To suggest means to give someone an idea to consider. See CONSIDER. “When he had a problem with money I suggested that he take an extra job. If she asks me what should she wear I will suggest the yellow dress. “

SUGGESTION A suggestion is the noun from the verb ‘to suggest’. It means the action of giving someone an idea to consider.” They gave him so many suggestions that he became confused and he did not know which suggestion to use.

SUM – (noun) 1. A sum is the name for an arithmetic problem. “How many sums did the teacher give you for homework?” 2. Sum is also another word for total. When you add up some figures the answer is called the total or the sum of these figures. 3. As a verb it means to add up the total of some figures. “When he had finished choosing what he wanted to buy he summed up the prices to see whether he had enough money”.

SUPERLATIVE – (adjective) 1. Superlative means of the highest kind or better than anything else. “I really enjoyed the match, the skill of the players was superlative. “ 2. In grammar superlative has a similar meaning. Take the words good, better, best. If something is good it is of a desirable quality. If it is better than its quality is more than that of something else. “Sheila sings better than Mary.” But if Sheila sings better than anyone else then she is the best singer. Best is called the superlative form of the adjective good and better is called the comparative form. See MOST.

SUPPLEMENT – (noun) 1. A supplement is something that is added to make something else bigger or better. “The supplement to the news paper had many interesting stories.” 2. Supplementary is the adjective. “Because the soldiers were fighting for so long they had to get supplementary supplies of food and ammunition. 3. “As a verb it means to supply something additional”. He supplemented his evening meal with a nice ripe apple.

SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES – (noun) See diagram 10.

SUPPORT – (verb) 1. Support means to hold up from underneath. “She supported the child in her arms. In a house the roof is supported by the walls. ” 2. Support also means to provide what is needed to stay alive. “ The father goes to work so he can support his family. “3. Support also means to give your help to something. “ He supports his football club by cheering at all their matches. “4. Support is also a noun. “ He gave his full support to his football club.

SURFACE – (noun) 1. The surface of something is the outside of it. “The surface of the ball was smooth. The surface of the sea was full of waves. “2. In geometry a surface has only two dimensions: it has length and breadth, but no thickness.

SURVIVAL – (noun) is the action of surviving. “Survival is impossible where there is no water.” See SURVIVE.

SURVIVE – (verb) means to keep on living. I” t was very difficult for the animals to survive through the cold winter because there was almost no food. To survive one must have water, food and clothing. They survived the terrible storm because they had a good boat.

SYLLABLE – (noun) Each part of a word that is pronounced separately is called a syllable. A syllable consists of a vowel on its own or a vowel with some ordinary letters – (consonants) See PRONOUNCE. ‘Away’ has two syllables: A- and -way. ‘geometry’ has 4 syllables: ge-om-e-try. “Run is a single syllable word; so are cat and dog.

SYLLABUS – (noun) is the word used to describe the detailed content of a student’s subject for a particular standard. “The syllabus for matric maths has many more things to be studied than that for standard 6 maths.

SYMBOL A symbol is something with a shape that has a special meaning. Some of the symbols that we use in arithmetic are +, – and =. A red triangle is a symbol for danger. Although we do not usually call the letters of the alphabet symbols they are actually symbols because each has a special shape with its own special sound or meaning.

SYMMETRICAL – (adjective) In maths for a figure to be symmetrical one must be able to draw in an axis of symmetry. An axis of symmetry is a line which divides the figure into two parts so that the shape and size of each part is the same. See diagram 35.

SYMMETRY – (noun) is the state of being symmetrical. “She liked things to be in symmetry so she arranged the 4 chairs on the left of the room in the same way as the 4 chairs on the right of the room. “ See Diagram 8 & 35.

SYSTEM – (noun) 1. A system is a group of things that together form another complete thing. “Here are some examples of some systems. The railway system; the telephone system; the TV system”. 2. System can also mean a method of doing something. “This is a good system for training for football.” 3. The word system also means the system of a body. “I do not feel well there is something wrong with my system.